Pre-ETS Glossary


This is the primary glossary for the site. It contains more than 1100 terms related to learning, secondary education, post-secondary education, employment, disability, and various aspects of pre-employment transition.

Browse the glossary using this index

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A

Academic Ability

The degree of actual competence to perform in scholastic or educational activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

Modifications of services, programs, and facilities to help persons with disabilities access the general education curriculum and validly demonstrate learning. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Advising

A decision-making process in which a student and academic adviser use the resources of a postsecondary education institution to analyze and coordinate learning experiences consistent with the student's needs, abilities, interests, values, and goals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Aptitude

An individual's potential ability to perform in scholastic or educational activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Aspiration

Desire to reach a level of academic achievement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Degrees

Academic titles conferred upon students by a college, university, or professional school on completion of a program of study. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Education

Relating to college preparatory studies or liberal and classical studies in higher education, as contrasted with technical or vocational studies. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Freedom

Right of teacher or student to be free from external or institutional coercion, censorship, or other forms of restrictive interference in academic matters. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Language

Language used in academic environments. Includes language used by teachers and students to communicate within a school setting as well as language employed in scholarly works. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Libraries

Libraries forming part of, or associated with, institutions of higher education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Academic Persistence

Continuance of a student in school or college enrollment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Probation

Trial period in which the student must improve academic achievement to avoid being dismissed. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Standards

Criteria established by an educational institution to determine levels of student achievement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Academic Support Services

Remedial, supplementary, or preventive assistance provided by educational institutions to help their students successfully complete course assignments and instructional program requirements, such as high stakes educational tests. Services may include: individual tutoring; homework help; and small group instruction in reading, writing, mathematics, test-taking strategies, study skills, etc. These services, which generally take place outside of normal class time, may be scheduled at fixed times or offered on a walk-in basis. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Acceleration (Education)

The process of progressing through an educational program at a rate faster than that of the average student. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Access to Computers

Availability of one or more computers for individual use. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Access to Education

Accessibility of an education to a student, including access to appropriate educational institutions, materials, and personnel. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Access to Health Care

The ability or means of individuals to obtain health care, including geographic, transportational, and financial factors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Access to Information

Means, processes, or rights related to obtaining or providing information -- also, the degree of information availability. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Accessibility (for Disabled)

Characteristics of facilities, programs, and services that allow them to be entered or used by individuals despite visual, hearing, mobility, or other impairments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Accountability

Being held responsible and answerable for specified results or outcomes of an activity (over which one has authority). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Acculturation

Absorption into any group of certain features of the culture. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Accuracy

he extent to which something is correct or the level of agreement between a measurement and the value of the quantity measured. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Achievement

Level of attainment or proficiency in relation to a standard measure of performance, or, of success in bringing about a desired end. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Achievement Gains

Progress towards attaining a specified level of proficiency or bringing about a desired end. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Achievement Gap

 
Academic performance disparity (as measured by educational indicators such as grades, graduation rates, standardized test scores, college admission, course selection) between or among student groups. The groups may be defined by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, English language proficiency, gender, geographic location, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Achievement Need

Forces that drive an individual to improve, succeed, or excel in things considered both difficult and important. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Achievement Rating

Judging individuals' or groups' levels of attainment or accomplishment and assigning quantitative or qualitative values to them according to specified standards or procedures. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Achievement Tests

ests used to measure knowledge, abilities, understanding, or skills acquired from academic work. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Acoustics

Science of sound -- includes the study of the transmission of sound through various media or in various enclosures. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Infectious, life-threatening condition caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that inhibits the body's protective immune system. Commonly transmitted through sexual contact, shared intravenous needles/syringes, and unscreened blood transfusions; may also be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Action Research

Research designed to yield practical results that are immediately applicable to a specific situation or problem. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Active Learning

Learning in which the learner is the principal driving force, with the instructor (if one is present) as facilitator of the process -- among the many active learning approaches are experiential learning, cooperative learning, problem-solving exercises, writing tasks, speaking activities, class discussion, case-study methods, simulations, role playing, peer teaching, fieldwork, independent study, library assignments, computer-assisted instruction, and homework. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Activism

Movements and procedures designed to force changes in rules and practices or to hasten social change. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Activities

Pursuits or experiences, usually requiring active participation, engaged in because they are of intrinsic interest or lead to some goal sought by the participant. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Activity Units

Units of study in which students participate actively, usually in informal groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adapted Physical Education

Adaptation of regular physical education programs to meet the needs of disabled individuals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adaptive Testing

Testing that involves selecting test items according to the examinee's ability as shown by responses to earlier test items. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Addictive Behavior

Compulsive, uncontrollable urge to use substances (such as alcohol) or engage in activities (such as gambling) despite actual or potential negative physical, emotional, psychological, or social consequences for oneself or others. Consequences may include physiological or psychological dependence. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adjunct Faculty

Temporary, part-time, or other auxiliary faculty of a school or college, usually with limited duties and benefits and often primarily employed outside of academia. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adjustment (to Environment)

A condition of harmonious relation to the environment, in which internal needs are satisfied and external demands are met. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administration

Planning, organizing, directing, and controlling human or material resources to accomplish predetermined goals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrative Change

Change in administrative personnel (reassignment, dismissal, etc.) or in the structure of an organization's administration. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrative Organization

The manner in which the authority, duties, and responsibilities of administrators, managers, or supervisors are structured -- also, the structuring of an organization so that these duties, etc., can be carried out. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrative Policy

Statement of an administrative body outlining the principles and practices to be followed with respect to specific matters -- also, the fixed procedures and practices of administration. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrative Principles

The assumptions, beliefs, values, or accepted practices that underlie administrative policy and activity. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Attitudes

Attitudes, opinions, or views held by administrators. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Behavior

Conduct of administrators in or out of job-related situations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Characteristics

Background and personal qualities of administrators. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Education

Pre-service programs, usually offered by colleges or universities, designed to prepare individuals for administrative or managerial positions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Effectiveness

Degree to which administrators are successful in satisfying their objectives, obligations, or functions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Evaluation

The evaluation or appraisal of administrators or managers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Qualifications

The education, experience, and physical, social, and mental characteristics that determine an individual's fitness for an administrative position. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Role

Functions and behaviors expected of or performed by persons in administrative positions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrator Surveys

Studies in which data are gathered from instructional leaders (principals or college administrators) on their attitudes, interests, activities, characteristics, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Administrators

Persons involved in planning, organizing, directing, and controlling human or material resources to accomplish predetermined goals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Admissions Officers

Administrative officials, usually at postsecondary institutions, with principal responsibility for the recruitment, selection, and admission of students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adolescent Attitudes

Attitudes of, not toward, adolescents. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adolescent Literature

Any reading material written primarily for, or read widely by, youth of secondary school age. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adolescents

Approximately 13-17 years of age. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adoption (Ideas)

Process of accepting new ideas or practices. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adult Basic Education

Education provided for adults at the elementary level (through grade 8), usually with emphasis on communicative, computational, and social skills. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adult Development

Physiological, psychological, and sociological growth or maturation occurring throughout an adult's lifetime. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adult Education

Providing or coordinating purposeful learning activities for adults. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adult Educators

Teachers who specialize in adult education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adult Programs

Programs for adults. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adult Vocational Education

Education for adults or out-of-school youth aged 16 or over engaged in or preparing to enter an occupation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adults

Approximately 18+ years of age. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Advance Organizers

Preview questions and comments used to increase learners' comprehension and recall. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Advanced Courses

Courses beyond the introductory or basic level. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Advanced Placement

Permitting students with academic credit or test scores beyond minimum requirements to bypass coursework. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Advanced Placement Programs

Programs adopted in U.S. in 1956 under which high school students can take College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) tests, receive college credit for acceptable scores, and be placed into sophomore-level college classes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Advanced Students

Students studying a particular subject at an advanced level. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Advantaged

Individuals or groups who have high status in a particular society for reasons of race, sex, ethnicity, economics, language, geographic location, environment, education, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adventitious Impairments

Conditions resulting from illness or injury during the developmental or adult years. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Adventure Education

Type of outdoor education that attempts to teach environmental awareness and build self-confidence through activities that involve risk or stress, such as rock climbing, survival training, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Advertising

Persuasive presentation or promotion of ideas, goods, or services by means of mass communication. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Advocacy

Full and active support for and representation of an individual, group, cause, or idea. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aesthetics

Branch of philosophy dealing with beauty, artistic expression, and psychological responses to beauty and art. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Affective Behavior

Behavior that involves or expresses emotions, feelings, or sentiments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Affective Measures

Procedures or devices used to obtain quantified descriptions of an individual's feelings, emotional states, or dispositions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Affective Objectives

Behavioral objectives which emphasize changes in interest, attitudes, and values, or a degree of adjustment, acceptance, or rejection. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Affirmative Action

Positive action taken to overcome underrepresentation of women and minority groups in employment (including career advancement programs) and in the make-up of postsecondary student bodies, as compared to the composition of the area population. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Affordances

The properties of objects, systems, institutions, or environments that potentially enable or facilitate particular actions or behaviors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


African American Institutions

Institutions whose ownership, leadership, and membership are primarily African American. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


African Americans

Citizens or legal residents of the U.S. of black African descent.


African Studies

Interdisciplinary instruction and research concerned with the continent of Africa and its inhabitants -- generally encompasses sub-Saharan Africa, but may also include north Africa. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Afrocentrism

Political and educational movement stressing African cultural values and the achievements of African civilizations, aimed at increasing confidence, identity, and unity among African-Americans and others of African descent. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Age Discrimination

Discriminatory attitudes or practices on account of an individual's age. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Age Grade Placement

Use of a student's age as the basis for assignment to a grade level or for school entrance -- also, the relationship between age and grade level. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agencies

Organizations serving the public -- also, administrative units of government. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agency Cooperation

Cooperation of agencies with each other or with other organizations, groups, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agenda Setting

The power of communication to shape and formulate opinion and direction through the choice of topics considered and/or the perspectives offered. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aggression

Hostile actions or behavior. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aging (Individuals)

The physiological and psychological process of growing old. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aging Education

Educational programs at all levels aimed at helping students gain a personal understanding of the process and problems of growing old. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agribusiness

All activities pertaining to manufacturing, processing, servicing, and distributing agricultural supplies and products. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agricultural Education

Formal preparation, at any level, for an agricultural occupation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agricultural Engineering

Application of engineering principles to agriculture, including soil and water management, rural electrification, processing of agricultural products, and design and use of agricultural machinery. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agricultural Laborers

Unskilled manual workers employed by farms, ranches, or other agricultural operations -- may be regular, seasonal, local, migrant, full-time, or part-time. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agricultural Production

The provision of plant and animal commodities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Agronomy

Branch of agriculture that deals with field crop production and soil management. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alaska Natives

Peoples indigenous to Alaska (Alaska's American Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alcohol Abuse

Excessive or otherwise inappropriate ingestion of alcoholic beverages, often causing risk or injury to health and impaired social functioning. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alcoholism

Psychogenic or physiological dependence on alcohol. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alienation

Estrangement from others, especially those from whom a relationship was expected, or from the prevalent values, goals, or trends of society. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alignment (Education)

Coordinating elements of teaching and learning (e.g., assessment, standards, curriculum, teaching methods, materials, scheduling, policies, school facilities and organization, educator training) to achieve consistency, conformity, and agreement among the components and to reflect and reinforce program goals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Allied Health Occupations

Professional, technical, and supportive occupations in patient services, administration, teaching, and research that support, complement, or supplement the functions of physicians, dentists, and registered nurses or other independent practitioners -- also includes environmental health occupations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Allied Health Occupations Education

Formal preparation for occupations in allied health at all levels. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alternative Assessment

Appraising knowledge or skills by means other than traditionally employed, objective tests, especially standardized multiple-choice tests. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alternative Teacher Certification

Departure from the traditional undergraduate route through college and university teacher education programs by which individuals become certified as teachers -- differences may be in primary objective, program length, participants, or training design. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Altruism

Consideration for the welfare of others, sometimes in accordance with an ethical system. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alumni

Graduates or former students of a school, college, university, or educational program. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Alzheimers Disease

The most common form of dementia in middle-aged and older adults -- characterized by severe, irreversible impairment of cognitive functions, such as thinking and memory, and by behavioral and personality changes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ambiguity (Context)

Situations or roles with multiple interpretations or outcomes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ambiguity (Semantics)

Language expression which can, often unintentionally, result in multiple interpretations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


American Indian Education

Formal and nonformal process of educating American Indians to their own and to the broader society. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


American Indian Reservations

Tracts of land, set aside by agreements between governments and Indian tribes, that are reserved for the exclusive use and occupancy of those tribes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


American Indian Students

Students who are members of the ancestral indigenous population groups of North and South America. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


American Indian Studies

Curriculum or subject area encompassing the culture, history, achievements, and contemporary concerns of American Indians. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


American Indians

Both North and South American Indians. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


American Sign Language

Visual/gestural language used by the deaf community in the United States and parts of Canada -- distinct from signed English, ASL has its own highly articulated linguistic system that makes use of the eyes, face, head, and body posture as well as the signer's hands. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


American Studies

Interdisciplinary studies of the United States. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ancillary School Services

Noninstructional services offered by schools or educational programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Andragogy

The art and science of the facilitation of adult learning, distinguished from child-oriented "pedagogy" in terms of learner self-direction, application of knowledge and experience, learning readiness, orientation to the present, and problem-centeredness. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Anglo Americans

Permanent residents of the Americas who are of English descent -- commonly used in the U.S. as a label for the white and/or English-speaking majority, especially in comparisons with minority ethnic groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Animal Husbandry

Branch of agriculture concerned with the production and care of domestic animals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Animation

Film or video techniques (analog or digital) that bring movement to inanimate objects or drawings. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Annual Reports

Includes data on progress, finance, material, personnel, instruction, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Answer Keys

Devices that display correct answers for particular tests. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Answer Sheets

Separate forms, sheets, or cards on which examinees record their responses to tests or questionnaires. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Anthologies

Collections of selected writings or other materials, usually in one form, from one period, or on one subject. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Anthropological Linguistics

Application of anthropological and linguistic techniques to the study of speech communities, particularly those with no writing system -- attention is given to specific interrelationships in the concurrent and systematic development of culture and language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Anti Intellectualism

Hostility towards or mistrust of intellectuals and intellectual pursuits. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Antisocial Behavior

Behavior that violates the normative rules, standards, understandings, or expectations of society. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Anxiety Disorders

Disorders characterized by chronic and disabling anxiety or fear. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aphasia

Impairment of the ability to comprehend or produce the symbols of spoken or written language due to brain dysfunction, not to mental or intellectual deficiency. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Applied Behavior Analysis

Therapy used to improve learning, social skills, and other behaviors.  Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Applied Linguistics

Application of the findings of linguistic science to practical language problems, such as language teaching, lexicography, translation, speech therapy, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Appropriate Technology

Technology suited to the psychosocial and biophysical needs in a particular place and time. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aptitude

The potential ability of an individual to perform an as yet unlearned task, skill, or act. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aptitude Tests

Tests that are used to predict future performance, as well as tests that measure those abilities which are not readily developed by formal training. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aptitude Treatment Interaction

Relationship between learner characteristics or traits and the characteristics of the learning task, learning situation, teacher, or teaching methods and materials. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Arbitration

The process by which the parties to a dispute submit their differences to the judgment of an impartial party appointed by mutual consent or statutory provision. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Architectural Research

Basic, applied, and developmental research focusing on architectural theory, design, or education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Architecture

Design and style of structures. Do not use for documents dealing with information architecture. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Archives

Repositories for public records or documents of historical importance concerning the activities of a nation, community, corporation, family, or historical figure -- also includes the material preserved. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Area Studies

Study of political or geographical area including history, geography, language, and general culture. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


areer Information Systems

Systems for collecting, organizing, and delivering information about occupations and relevant educational opportunities to support career planning, decision making, and guidance, often with the assistance of computers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Art

Broad term for the processes and results of aesthetic expression. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Art Activities

Productive or appreciative participation in aesthetic experiences, including the use of such experiences generally in the school curriculum. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Art Criticism

Description, interpretation, and evaluation of visual art works, e.g., painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, computer imagery, crafts -- includes historical, recreative, and judicial analyses. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Art Education

Education concerned with one or more of the fine or applied arts, including studies and creative experiences. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Art Expression

Process of communicating thoughts or feelings aesthetically, as in painting, sculpture, music, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Art History

Study of art expression through the ages, including specific periods, artists, or schools of art. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Art Products

The final products of the creative process involving the use of an art medium or performance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Art Therapy

The therapeutic use of art forms (painting, sculpturing, drawing, etc.) in achieving self-expression and emotional release, usually in a context of remediation or rehabilitation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Articulation (Education)

Systematic coordination of course and/or program content within and between educational institutions to facilitate the continuous and efficient progress of students from grade to grade, school to school, and from school to the working world. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Articulation Impairments

Disorders involving the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of speech sounds that are uncharacteristic of particular age groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Artificial Intelligence

Capability of a device to perform functions normally associated with human intelligence. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Artificial Languages

Languages created for international communication, e.g., Esperanto, Interlingua, Novial, Volapuk. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Asian American Students

Students of Asian heritage (descendants of the indigenous peoples of East Asia and Southeast Asia) who are citizens or permanent residents of the United States. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Asian Americans

Citizens or permanent residents of the United States who are descendants of the indigenous peoples of east Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia) and Southeast Asia. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Asian Studies

Studies, usually interdisciplinary in approach, of such geographic areas as Asiatic Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and the Southeast Asian subcontinent. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Asians

Persons of Asian descent. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Asperger Syndrome

Pervasive developmental disorder characterized primarily by impaired social interaction, differing from autism in that language skills and intelligence are not affected, and may be above average. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aspiration

Desire for the realization of ambitions, ideals, or accomplishments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Assertiveness

Bold, forceful expression of opinions or defense of one's interests. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Assessment Centers (Personnel)

ersonnel evaluation centers using multiple assessment techniques for staff selection, promotion, or development -- typically included are simulated work experiences and the use of multiple observers to appraise job-related behaviors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Assessment Literacy

Knowledge of the key principles, methods, standards, and other aspects of assessment; and the ability to use that knowledge to design, plan, and conduct tests and use their results to improve teaching and learning. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Assignments

Learning tasks that are allotted to students or groups of students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Assistive Technology

Any high- or low-technology device, piece of equipment, or product system acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used by persons with disabilities to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities, assist them in learning, enable them to participate in the workplace, or otherwise improve their quality of life. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Associate Degrees

Degrees granted upon completion of an educational program of at least 2 but less than 4 academic years of college work, generally for completion of a curriculum of a 2-year institution -- includes Associate in Arts, Associate in Science, and Associate in Applied Science degrees. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Association (Psychology)

Process or state of establishing functional relationships between new and previously known stimuli and/or responses, so that the presence of one tends to evoke the other(s). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Association Measures

Procedures or devices used to evaluate an individual's feelings, motives, or attitudes by requiring responses (usually spontaneous) to a set of verbal or pictorial stimuli (Note: Do not use for tests measuring paired associate learning). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Associative Learning

Learning that occurs through the establishment of functional relationships between new and previously known stimuli and/or responses. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Asthma

Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. It causes repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and nighttime or early morning coughing. Asthma can be controlled by taking medicine and avoiding the triggers that can cause an attack. You must also remove the triggers in your environment that can make your asthma worse. Definition provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Asynchronous Communication

Communication that does not occur in real time or involve simultaneous interaction on the part of participants. It is intermittent and generally characterized by a significant time delay or interval between sending and receiving or responding to messages. Although frequently used to describe electronic communication tools, such as e-mail and bulletin boards, asynchronous communication can also take place in non-electronic environments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


At Risk Persons

Individuals or groups identified as possibly having or potentially developing a problem (physical, mental, educational, etc.) requiring further evaluation and/or intervention. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


At Risk Students

Students considered in danger of not graduating, being promoted, or meeting other education-related goals. Risk factors may include, but are not limited to, socioeconomic status; academic background; behavior, cognitive, or physical problems; family or community environment; and school capacity to meet student needs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Athletics

Sports, games, or physical contests often engaged in competitively. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Attachment Behavior

Behavior exhibited by an individual attracted (maintaining proximity) to and dependent on a specific person or object for emotional satisfaction. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Attention Deficit Disorders

Developmentally inappropriate inattention and impulsivity. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences



Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

  1. A disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences
  2. There are three different types of ADHD, depending on which types of symptoms are strongest in the individual:
    1. Predominantly Inattentive Presentation: It is hard for the individual to organize or finish a task, to pay attention to details, or to follow instructions or conversations. The person is easily distracted or forgets details of daily routines.
    2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation: The person fidgets and talks a lot. It is hard to sit still for long (e.g., for a meal or while doing homework). Smaller children may run, jump or climb constantly. The individual feels restless and has trouble with impulsivity. Someone who is impulsive may interrupt others a lot, grab things from people, or speak at inappropriate times. It is hard for the person to wait their turn or listen to directions. A person with impulsiveness may have more accidents and injuries than others.
    3. Combined Presentation: Symptoms of the above two types are equally present in the person. Because symptoms can change over time, the presentation may change over time as well. Definition provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Attitude Measures

Procedures or devices used to obtain quantified descriptions of an individual's predispositions to react to certain people, objects, situations, ideas, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Attitudes

Predispositions to react to certain persons, objects, situations, ideas, etc., in a particular manner -- not always consciously held (as are beliefs) nor readily verbalized (as are opinions), they are characterized as either affective or valuative. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Attitudes toward Disabilities

Predispositions or opinions, of individuals or of societies, concerning people with disabilities or concerning disabilities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Attribution Theory

Theory focusing on perceived causes of behavior. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Attrition (Research Studies)

Reduction in size of the population sample during the period of time covered by a longitudinal study. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audience Analysis

Gathering and interpreting information about the recipients of oral, written, or visual communication. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audience Awareness

he conceptions of the writer, speaker, or performer concerning the recipients of his/her communication. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audience Response

Recipient reactions to, and interpretations of, oral, visual, or written communication. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audience Response Systems

When used during classroom instruction, audience response system technologies allow students to respond to instructor questions using wireless handheld devices. Typically, questions and results are displayed using presentation & projection technologies; results may also be stored in databases and integrated learning systems. Educational uses include, but are not limited to, formative assessment, facilitating learner engagement, keeping attendance records, monitoring comprehension, and data collection. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audio Books

Audio versions of printed material (such as books, articles, or other publications) produced in analog or digital formats. Used in P-12 and higher and adult education settings with learners who have visual impairments or other physical or learning disabilities, and to support reading and literacy instruction in general education settings. Also used for recreational reading. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audiology

Study of hearing and hearing impairments -- includes assessment, therapy, and rehabilitation of hearing-impaired individuals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audiometric Tests

Tests assessing hearing acuity and range using an audiometer. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audiovisual Aids

Nonprint instructional materials and the equipment required for their display. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audiovisual Communications

Transmission of instructional information by audio and/or visual systems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audiovisual Instruction

roduction, selection, and utilization of audiovisual aids in instruction. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Auditory Discrimination

Ability to distinguish sounds of varying frequencies, intensities, and patterns. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Auditory Evaluation

Determination of an individual's ability to hear and of any needed treatment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Auditory Perception

Ability to identify and assign meaning to sounds. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Auditory Tests

Tests designed to assess hearing ability. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Auditory Training

Training in the recognition and interpretation of common sounds, such as musical sounds or speech. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Audits (Verification)

Verifications of legality, fidelity, efficiency, or feasibility of procedures, operations, transactions, or expenditures, often by an independent person or agency. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Augmentative and Alternative Communication

Communication in which at least one partner is a user of a visual, tactile, or auditory system that either adds to or replaces normal speech and/or writing. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aural Learning

Learning through listening. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Authentic Learning

Learning, sometimes in a real-world context, through activities and teaching techniques that are meant to prepare and motivate students for success in life by letting them relate and apply what they learn in school to real-world experiences, problems, and topics. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Autism

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability  that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. There is often nothing about how people with ASD look that sets them apart from other people, but people with ASD may communicate, interact, behave, and learn in ways that are different from most other people. The learning, thinking, and problem-solving abilities of people with ASD can range from gifted to severely challenged. Some people with ASD need a lot of help in their daily lives; others need less. A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome. These conditions are now all called autism spectrum disorder. Definition provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Autobiographies

Accounts people write of their own lives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Autoinstructional Aids

Instructional materials, equipment, or systems used, without the aid of a teacher, in individual or individualized instruction to present information and inform learners of their progress. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Automation

Investigation, design, development, and application of methods of rendering processes automatic, self-moving, or self-controlling. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Average Daily Attendance

Average of the number of students present at (as opposed to enrolled in) a school during the time it is in session. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Aviation Education

Learning/teaching activities across all grade levels that focus on such topics as aircraft flight, airplane structure/maintenance/operation, avionics, air commerce/transportation, aerial safety/ground support, and the effects of air travel on everyday life -- includes both general and technical educational programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Awards

Verbal or material commendations, calling attention to activities, performances, or qualities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


B

Baby Boomers

Those born at a time when the population's birth rate is sharply increasing -- used most frequently for the post World War II generation, especially those born between 1946 and 1965. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bachelors Degrees

Academic degrees awarded by a college or university in recognition of the successful completion of undergraduate studies. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Back to Basics

Educational movement stressing basic skills, achievement, and accountability -- begun in the early 1970s as a protest against school permissiveness and declining student performance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Background

Sum of the regular and persistent influences (experiences, conditions, circumstances, events, etc.) contributing to the present development or characteristics of an individual, group, or organization. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Barriers

Tangible or intangible obstructions that block, hinder, delay, deter, or interfere with action, movement, progress, or development. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Basal Reading

Instruction that develops reading skills through the use of a series of reading materials which are designed in sequential steps for successive levels of achievement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Basic Business Education

Instruction or study in personal business affairs -- areas of concentration include legal knowledge, recordkeeping, buying, and money management. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Basic Skills

Fundamental skills that are the basis of later learning and achievement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Basic Vocabulary

Fundamental vocabulary considered essential to effective comprehension and expression (common to all fields and subjects). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Basic Writing

Developmental written composition or remedial writing instruction concerned with fundamental writing skills, including grammar, punctuation, organization, spelling, vocabulary, theme formulation, and revision -- also, basic writing for second-language students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bayesian Statistics

Procedures that combine data from new observations with prior observations or estimates to derive new and more precise estimates. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beginning Principals

Certified administrators entering their initial career position as executive or administrative officer of a school. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beginning Reading

Initial activities, processes, or behaviors involved in learning to read. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Beginning Teacher Induction

Structured processes or programs designed to facilitate the initial inservice teaching experience, usually involving mentoring or peer support. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beginning Teachers

Certified teachers entering their first teaching position. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beginning Writing

Initial activities, processes, or behaviors involved in learning to write -- usually applies to young children. Note: Do not confuse with "Basic Writing," which consists of instruction in fundamental skills, or "Freshman Composition," which is the instruction of first-year college students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior

The aggregate of observable responses of an organism to internal and external stimuli. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Change

Complete or partial alteration in the observable activities or responses of an organism. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Disorders

Chronic or severe disorders of conduct, i.e., generally aberrant and unacceptable behaviors with or without serious underlying psychopathology. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Modification

Alteration of behavior by the use of conditioning techniques. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Patterns

Complex acts made up of distinguishable lesser acts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Problems

Transient or mild problems in conduct. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Rating Scales

Devices used to observe and record the occurrence of specific behaviors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavioral Objectives

Aims of instruction or any learning activity stated as actual performance criteria or as observable descriptions of measurable behavior. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavioral Science Research

Basic, applied, and developmental research conducted to advance knowledge in the behavioral sciences. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behaviorism

School of psychological thought, founded by J.B. Watson in 1913, concerned with the observable, tangible, objective facts of behavior, rather than with subjective phenomena such as thoughts, emotions, or impulses -- contemporary behaviorism also emphasizes the study of mental states such as feelings and fantasies to the extent that they can be directly observed and measured. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beliefs

Ideas, doctrines, tenets, etc. that are accepted as true on grounds which are not immediately susceptible to rigorous proof. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Benchmarking

Systematically measuring and comparing the operations and outcomes of organizations, systems, processes, etc., against agreed upon "best-in-class" frames of reference. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Best Practices

Techniques or methodologies which are recognized as producing the best performance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bias

An inclination, or a lack of balance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bibliographies

Descriptive lists of books or other printed materials, which are written by one author, during one period, on one subject, produced by one printer and/or publisher, or located in one place. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bibliometrics

The application of mathematical and statistical methods in the study of bodies of writings to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bibliotherapy

Use of selected reading and related materials for therapeutic purposes in physical medicine, mental health, and education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Education

Encouragement of bilingualism through the teaching of regular school courses in both the national language and a second language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Education Programs

Activities that offer content area instruction in two languages -- appreciation of participants' cultural heritage is emphasized, and native speakers of both languages may be present -- attention is given to developing the academic skills of minority students while they learn the language of the majority culture. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Instructional Materials

Print and/or nonprint educational materials developed specifically for use with students who need proficiency in two languages. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Students

Students who can communicate effectively in more than one language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Teacher Aides

Teacher aides who can communicate effectively in more than one language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Teachers

Teachers who can communicate effectively in more than one language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingualism

The ability to communicate in two languages. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biodiversity

The variety of living organisms, encompassing genetic differences within species to entire ecosystems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biofeedback

Auditory, visual, or other sensory feedback on physiological processes or states (e.g., heart rate, muscle tension, brain waves, skin temperature) in order to facilitate control of these normally involuntary functions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biographical Inventories

Sets of questions used to gather information on an individual's background. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biographies

Written histories of people's lives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biomechanics

Science of the action of forces, internal and external, on living things. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biomedicine

Branch of science concerned with the capacity of human beings to survive and function in specific environments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biophysics

Application of physical methods and principles to biological problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biotechnology

The use of biological organisms, systems, or processes to make or modify products. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Birth Rate

Ratio between the number of births and the number of individuals in a specified population. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Black Colleges

Colleges whose enrollments are, or have traditionally been, predominantly black. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Black Studies

Curriculum or subject area encompassing the history and contemporary social, political, and cultural situation of blacks. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Blacks

Persons of black African descent. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Blended Learning

Variable construct describing approaches to teaching and learning that integrate, in a significant and meaningful way, more than one technique for delivering instruction. Widely associated with combinations of face-to-face and e-learning teaching methods, blended learning may also refer to other mixtures (e.g., individual and group instruction; self-paced instruction and lecture method).


Blindness

Having no sight or such limited vision that hearing and touch are the chief means of perception and learning -- legal blindness is usually defined as having central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with correction or having a visual field no greater than 20 degrees. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Block Grants

Financial assistance for broad ranges of activities and services, of which specific dispensations of allocated funds are made at the discretion of the grantee within the bounds of a statutory formula. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Block Scheduling

An instructional arrangement whereby part or all of the daily class schedule is organized into blocks of time longer than an hour, to facilitate flexibility and diversity in instructional activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Blue Collar Occupations

Occupations that require manual labor -- includes skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled occupations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Boarding Schools

Educational institutions at the elementary-secondary level in which students are in residence while enrolled in an instructional program. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Body Composition

The amounts of fat and nonfat tissue in the body, usually expressed as a ratio. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Books

Corresponds to the Publication. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Brain Drain

Loss of highly skilled or educated persons from one country, region, institution, or job sector to another (for better pay, improved living conditions, expanded opportunities, etc.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Brain Hemisphere Functions

Specialized roles of the right and left halves of the brain. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Brainstorming

Activity or technique to encourage the creative generation of ideas -- usually a group process, in which group members contribute suggestions in a spontaneous, noncritical manner. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Buddhism

Religion based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (India, 5th century B.C.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Budgeting

The process of determining estimates of proposed expenditures for a given period or purpose and the proposed means of financing them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Budgets

Estimates of proposed expenditures for a given period or purpose and the proposed means of financing them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Building Conversion

Modifying a building to make it suitable for a new use or purpose. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Building Design

Conceiving and selecting the structure, elements, arrangement, materials, etc., for a building -- also, the plan or layout that results. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bullying

Cruelty and intimidation by teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting, stealing, excluding, ignoring, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Burnout

Negative feelings and/or behaviors resulting from unsuccessful attempts to cope with stress conditions -- characterized by physical and emotional exhaustion, chronic negative attitudes, very low productivity, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business

Activities concerned with the production or exchange of goods or the rendering of financial or other services to the public for profit. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Business Administration

The organization and management of commercial enterprises. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business Administration Education

Professional study of the organization and management of commercial enterprises, usually at the baccalaureate level and above. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business Communication

Interchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in commercial or mercantile environments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business Education

Formal preparation for occupations in business below the baccalaureate degree. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business Schools

An institution of higher learning where subjects related to business or business services are taught. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Busing

Transporting students for the purpose of school desegregation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


C

Calculators

Electronic or mechanical devices for performing mathematical or arithmetic operations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Camps

Recreational or instructional programs usually held in simple facilities in an outdoor setting. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Campuses

The grounds and buildings of a school, college, university, or other institution of learning. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Canada Natives

Peoples indigenous to Canada (Canada's American Indians, Eskimos, or peoples whose ancestry is mixed with these groups). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cancer

Malignant and invasive growth or tumor. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Capacity Building

Process of building capabilities of individuals or groups to prepare for and respond to development challenges. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Capstone Experiences

Courses, projects, or learning experiences, often undertaken at the culmination of a program of study, in which students synthesize subject-matter knowledge, integrate cross-disciplinary knowledge, engage in reflection, and connect theory and application in preparation for the responsibilities of a profession. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career Academies

Schools-within-schools (usually high-school level) focusing on broadly defined career themes (health careers, electronics, etc.), with highly integrated academic and vocational curricula and active involvement of local employers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career Awareness

Appreciation for and understanding of the variety of types of careers -- often refers to the initial phase of career education appropriate to the elementary school. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career Centers

Centers providing occupational information and employment services, commonly located within larger facilities such as colleges and universities, government agencies, or corporations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career Counseling

Counseling activities to assist clients in selecting appropriate career options. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career Development

The continuous process of making career decisions based on the individual's experiences and interactions (e.g., the child's first impression of the working world, the adolescent's consideration of vocational alternatives, or the adult's decision to change careers). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career Education

A comprehensive educational program that focuses on individual career development, beginning with grade 1 or earlier and continuing through the adult. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career Exploration

Investigating occupational interest areas often through real or simulated job experience -- frequently found in career education programs for grades 6 through 10. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Career Guidance

Spectrum of activities and programs designed to help people plan, choose, and succeed in their careers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career Readiness

Variable construct describing the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed secure and retain adequately compensated employment. Frequently applied to outcomes for secondary and postsecondary students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Career School

A school, such as a vocational or trade school, that offers programs of study that take two years or less to complete.

This definition was provided by the U.S. Department of Education.


Careers

The progressively developing sequences of related occupational roles or work experiences through which individuals move during their working lives, often with increasing prestige and rewards -- also, the intended sequence of such roles established by individuals as part of their life plans. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Caregiver Attitudes

Attitudes of, not toward, caregivers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Caregiver Training

Formal or informal training of care providers, predominantly those working with children but also including those involved with disabled, ill, or elderly adults. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Caregivers

Individuals who provide personal care to others -- includes professionals, nonprofessionals, family members, and friends. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Caring

Variable construct that describes attitudes, relationships, behaviors, and environments characterized by qualities such as helpfulness, concern, empathy, kindness, consideration, good will, responsiveness, and support. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cartography

Science or art of making maps. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Case Method (Teaching Technique)

The practice of using cases as a pedagogical tool in fields such as law, business, medicine, and education -- cases may include real and imagined scenarios, critical incident analysis, case studies, vignettes, and anecdotal accounts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Case Studies

Detailed analyses, usually focusing on a particular problem of an individual, group, or organization. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Caseworker Approach

Techniques, strategies, and procedures used by caseworkers, counselors, social workers, etc. for working with individuals or groups -- includes determining and solving problems, recordkeeping, and followup activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Caseworkers

Social service personnel responsible for solving or mitigating the specific problems of individuals, families, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Catholic Educators

Teachers in Catholic schools or in diocesan educational programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Causal Models

Theoretical frameworks for estimating and diagrammatically expressing plausible causality among variables. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Central Office Administrators

School district administrators, responsible to the superintendent and board of education for such areas as curriculum, personnel, budget, assessment, student services, and community relations (occasionally may be interpreted to include the superintendent and board of education). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Cerebral Palsy (CP)

A group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. Cerebral means having to do with the brain. Palsy means weakness or problems with using the muscles. CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a person’s ability to control his or her muscles. The symptoms of CP vary from person to person. A person with severe CP might need to use special equipment to be able to walk, or might not be able to walk at all and might need lifelong care. A person with mild CP, on the other hand, might walk a little awkwardly, but might not need any special help. CP does not get worse over time, though the exact symptoms can change over a person’s lifetime. All people with CP have problems with movement and posture. Many also have related conditions such as intellectual disability; seizures; problems with vision, hearing, or speech; changes in the spine (such as scoliosis); or joint problems (such as contractures). Definition provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Ceremonies

Formal acts or public events, typically conducted elaborately, solemnly, and in accordance with established ritual or protocol. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Change

Act or process of altering, modifying, transforming, substituting, or otherwise making or becoming different -- includes deviation from established character, condition, sequence, or direction. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Change Agents

Individuals or groups who attempt change, aid in its accomplishment, or help to cope with it. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Change Strategies

Methods used by those who would alter the practice of some organization, institution, or other group to incorporate new knowledge, products, procedures, or values toward improved service or results. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Character Recognition

Technology of using a machine to sense and encode written or printed characters into a machine language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Charter Schools

Public schools run by groups of parents, teachers, and administrators under contract with local or state school boards, and given broad freedom from regulations in exchange for the promise of such favorable outcomes as improved test scores, attendance rates, and dropout rates. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Check Lists

Lists from which items can be compared, scheduled, verified, or identified. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Chemical Engineering

Branch of engineering concerned with industrial chemical processes involved in converting raw materials into products, and the design/operation of plants/equipment to accomplish this work. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Advocacy

Active mobilization of social, economic, and legal resources for the purpose of ensuring the individual child's basic rights and developmental needs (including those related to home, community, and school). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Child Care

Care of children by persons other than their parents or guardians on a partial or full day basis. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Care Centers

Professionally run facilities where care for groups of children is provided on a partial or full day basis. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Caregivers

Persons who take care of children -- includes professionals, nonprofessionals, parents, and others. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Custody

Court-authorized arrangement for the primary care of children. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Development Centers

Educational facilities for preschool children, which also provide health and family services -- originally used in connection with Project Head Start for centers in which cooperation of family, community, and professional staff contribute to the total development of the child. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Development Specialists

Persons whose professional training has prepared them to understand and work with the changes that take place in children as they develop from birth to maturity -- these specialists may work with other professionals, paraprofessionals, or parents, as well as with children. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Neglect

Failure of parents or caretakers to provide to children the care essential for normal development. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Rearing

Care of children by parents, guardians, or other primary caregivers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Responsibility

Responsibility of, not for, a child. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Child Safety

Freedom from, or prevention of, harm or danger to children. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Childhood Interests

Objects, activities, persons, etc., that engage the attention of children. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Childhood Needs

Those experiences, attentions, etc., which are necessary for the physical, biological, intellectual, personal, and social development of children. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Childlessness

Having no children. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Children

Aged birth through approximately 12 years. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Children's Art

The process and/or the results of children's production of art objects or artifacts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Children's Attitudes

Attitudes of, not toward, children. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Children's Literature

Any reading material written primarily for, or read widely by, children from their early years to adolescence. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Children's Rights

Legal and human rights of children, pertaining to physical and psychological welfare in such areas as guardianship, custody, child abuse, and juvenile court proceedings. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Children's Television

Television programming designed for or aimed at children's interests. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Childrens Writing

Writing by, not for, children. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Christianity

The religion derived from Jesus Christ, based on the Bible as sacred scripture, and professed by Eastern, Roman Catholic, and Protestant bodies. Definition provided by Merriam-Webster.


Chronic Illness

Disease or ailment of long duration or frequent recurrence, and often of increasing severity. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Church Role

Function performed by or expected of individual churches or the church as an institution. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Citation Analysis

Bibliometric application in which a body of literature is separated and classified through interconnections of bibliographic citations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Citation Indexes

Indexing system for identifying later writings that refer to (cite) earlier works. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Citations (References)

References that identify works that have been used as authorities or from which passages have been quoted. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Citizen Participation

Political or social involvement in the community, government, or school in order to improve or maintain the status quo or to have impact on policy formation and decision making. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Citizenship

Status of being a member of a political community with the attendant rights, responsibilities, and privileges. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Citizenship Education

Learning activities, curriculum, and/or educational programs, at any educational level, concerned with rights and responsibilities of citizenship -- the purpose is to promote knowledge, skills, and attitudes conducive to effective participation in civic life. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Civics

The social science dealing with the fundamental philosophical, political, social, economic, and historical aspects of government and citizenship. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Civil Rights

Rights of all individuals to equality under the law, sometimes denied because of personal characteristics (e.g., race, sex, ethnic background). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Civil Rights Legislation

Legislation that aims to protect the constitutional rights of citizens, especially to rectify past discriminatory actions toward minority groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Class Rank

Academic standing within a class. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classical Conditioning

A form of conditioning in which an arbitrary or neutral stimulus (e.g., the bell in Pavlov's experiment) comes to elicit a response (e.g., salivation) after it is repeatedly paired with reinforcement (e.g., food). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classical Literature

Literature of ancient Greece and Rome. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classics (Literature)

Literary works of demonstrably enduring appeal and quality. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classification

Ordering of related phenomena into categories, groups, families, or systems according to characteristics or attributes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classroom Communication

Process of information sharing that consists of verbal and nonverbal transactions between teacher and students, or between and among students, in a classroom setting. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classroom Desegregation

Process of bringing students of different ethnic or racial groups into the same classroom. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classroom Design

Conceiving and selecting the structure, elements, arrangement, and materials that make up or are enclosed by a classroom -- also, the plan or layout that results. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classroom Environment

Intellectual, social, physical, etc., conditions within or exogenous to a classroom that influence the learning situation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classroom Observation Techniques

Procedures used to obtain quantified descriptions of teacher and student behavior and interaction in a classroom setting. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classroom Research

Systematic investigations conducted in or about a classroom setting -- includes studies of instructors, students, and facilities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classroom Techniques

Techniques used in the classroom by those in authority (e.g., teachers, aides, administrators) -- may either be directly educational or facilitate educational processes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Classrooms

Spaces designed or adapted for group instruction -- includes general and special classrooms but excludes such large assembly rooms as auditoriums, lunch rooms, and gymnasiums. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Clearinghouses

Organizations that collect, process, maintain, and disseminate material, usually derived from current research, on a particular topic. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Clerical Occupations

Occupations concerned with preparing, transcribing, systematizing, and preserving written communications and records, distributing information, or collecting accounts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Client Characteristics (Human Services)

Distinguishing traits or qualities of persons who engage the assistance of human service workers (counselors, psychologists, physicians, nurses, social workers, etc.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Client Server Architecture

A computer system design for computer networks and operating systems that divides processing work between clients and servers. Clients are computers, programs, or processes that users employ to request services or resources from servers. Servers are computers, programs, or processes that provide specialized services (e.g., print servers, file servers). In a client-server relationship, client and server functions may or may not be carried out on the same computer or device. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Climate

The prevailing conditions of the physical environment, indoor or outdoor. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Clinical Diagnosis

Identification of diseases or disorders and the prescription of treatment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Clinical Experience

Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Clinical Psychology

Branch of psychology devoted to psychological methods of diagnosing and treating mental and emotional disorders, as well as research into the causes of these disorders and the effects of therapy. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Clinical Supervision (of Teachers)

A collegial model of teacher supervision and improvement that includes at least three phases-- planning conference, classroom observation, and feedback. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Clinical Teaching (Health Professions)

Instruction in the clinical setting where actual symptoms are studied and treatment is given. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cloze Procedure

Completion exercises requiring the reader to insert missing words with the aid of surrounding context. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cluster Colleges

Colleges, in close physical proximity, that constitute a single institution, share facilities and services, and usually have a centralized administration -- generally each college in the cluster focuses on one area of study. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cluster Grouping

Classifying or selecting the items within a collection (of people, ideas, objects, etc.) on the basis of specified similarities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Coaching (Performance)

Customized instructional, training, or guidance intervention designed to improve the performance or capacity of an individual, team, or organization. Generally site-based, coaching is characterized by intense, sustained non-judgmental and non-evaluative assistance, support, and feedback from a knowledgeable professional who helps the client to set goals, identify obstacles, and develop plans and strategies to achieve goals. Coaching may occur in one-to-one or group settings. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cocaine

Narcotic alkaloid obtained from coca leaves -- widely used systemically as a stimulant or euphoriant. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cocounseling

Two or more counselors working as a team with a single client or group of clients, usually at the same time but sometimes consecutively. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Code Switching (Language)

The alternating use of languages, dialects, or language styles in the speech of an individual (e.g., the bilingual's use of two languages in speech) -- may occur at the word, phrase, clause, or sentence level. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Codification

Process of collecting and arranging laws and standards according to a system. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Coding

he process of using symbols or patterns of symbols to classify information, often for easy or rapid (sometimes secret) communication and transmission between or among persons and/or machines -- also includes "decoding," i.e., changing coded symbols back to an original form. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Development

Increasing complexity of awareness, including perceiving, conceiving, reasoning, and judging, through adaptation to the environment and assimilation of information. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Mapping

Patterning by an individual of experiences and expectations to form perceptions of cause-effect or means-ends relationships. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Measurement

The use of systematic procedures to obtain indications of individuals' cognitive ability, style, development, or other mental processes that are primarily cognitive rather than affective or psychomotor. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Objectives

Behavioral objectives that emphasize remembering or reproducing something which has presumably been learned, or that involve the solving of some intellectual task. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Processes

Processes based on perception, introspection, or memory through which an individual obtains knowledge or conceptual understanding, e.g., perceiving, judging, abstracting, reasoning, imagining, remembering, and anticipating. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Psychology

ranch of psychology concerned with the nature and structure of complex "knowledge processes" (e.g., recognizing, conceiving, judging, and reasoning) and their effects on, or interactions with, behavior -- particularly identified with "information processing" models of human cognition, usually simulated on computers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Restructuring

Use of counseling, therapy, or self-monitoring techniques to alter attitudes, concepts, and/or expectations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Science

The study of cognition, employing an interdisciplinary approach. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Structures

Frameworks or forms of thinking that can change with age and experience. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Style

Information processing habits which represent the learner's typical modes of perceiving, thinking, remembering, and problem solving. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cognitive Tests

Tests used to obtain indications of an individual's cognitive style, development, or other characteristics of cognitive functioning. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cohort Analysis

Group by group analytic treatment of individuals having a statistical factor in common to each group -- group members share a particular characteristic (e.g., born, married, etc., within a given year) or a common experience (e.g., entering a particular training phase at a given time). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Collaborative Writing

Process in which two or more individuals work together to produce a written composition. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Collective Bargaining

Negotiation on wages, hours, and other conditions of employment between an organization and its employees as represented by a union or an employee association. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Collective Settlements

Communities practicing common ownership and cooperative living. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Collectivism

A theory or policy having a primary regard for the rights, actions, and identity of a group rather than of individuals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College

Colleges include:

  • public and private four-year colleges and universities; and 
  • two-year community colleges or junior colleges; and career schools.

This definition was provided by the U.S. Department of Education.


College Applicants

Individuals applying for admission to institutions of higher education -- includes those accepted who do not attend as well as those not accepted. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Attendance

Past or present attendance by students in an institution of higher education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Bound Students

High school students planning to attend a degree-granting postsecondary institution. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Credits

Units for expressing quantitatively the work completed by a student in a college course, in a program accepted by the college, or for prior learning accepted by the college. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College English

English curriculum at the college level. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Entrance Examinations

Aptitude, achievement, or other measures used in connection with admissions programs for colleges, universities, or graduate or professional schools. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Environment

Conditions, forces, or factors that affect institutions of higher education and/or the people associated with them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Faculty

Academic staff members engaged in instruction, research, administration, or related educational activities in a college or university. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Freshmen

First-year students at higher education, generally four-year, institutions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Governing Councils

Organizations of faculty representatives, sometimes including administrators and students, that consider administrative, academic, or operational policies of the institution. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Graduates

Individuals who have completed the requirements of a college or university program and have been awarded a degree. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Housing

Living quarters (e.g., dormitories, apartments) for college or university students or staff, usually but not necessarily on campus. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Outcomes Assessment

ormal or informal appraisal or judgment of two- or four-year college programs or students in relation to institutional or public expectations of achievement or development -- often but not always measured against specific objectives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Planning

Administrative planning at higher education institutions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Presidents

Principal administrative officers responsible for the direction of all affairs and operations of a higher education institution. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Programs

Programs offered by institutions of higher education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Readiness

Cognitive, physical, and psychosocial maturity prerequisite to learning at a postsecondary institution, as evidenced by academic knowledge and skills obtained as a result of participating in a college preparatory secondary school program. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Role

Functions expected of or carried out by the college in society. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College School Cooperation

Cooperation between colleges, universities, or professional schools and other kinds of schools (e.g., elementary, secondary, vocational, technical, special education...). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Seniors

Students in their last year of a baccalaureate program. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Students

Students attending an institution of higher education -- includes all levels, 1st-year through postgraduate. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


College Transfer Students

Students who have transferred or intend to transfer from one higher education institution or program to another to achieve more advanced or different educational goals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Colleges

Degree granting institutions of higher education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Collegiality

Relationship among people within a profession, field, organization, or office, characterized by trust, openness, concern, and cooperation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Commercialization

Variable construct referring to the adoption by education institutions, as well as other public sector and nonprofit organizations, of norms, values, methods, principles, priorities, governance structures, or performance criteria customarily associated with for-profit businesses. May also describe the process of making products, services, ideas, information, etc. marketable. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Common Core State Standards

A set of academic expectations in English language arts and mathematics that outline what elementary and secondary school students should know by the end of each grade. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Communication (Thought Transfer)

Transmission and reception of signals or meanings through a system of symbols (codes, gestures, language, etc.) common to sender and receiver. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Communication Disorders

Impairments of an individual's ability to communicate due to disorders of hearing, speech, language, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Communication Strategies

Plans or methods that can be used or taught to facilitate communication proficiency. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Communications

Science and technology of the transmission and reception of information. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Communicative Competence (Languages)

The ability to converse or correspond with a native speaker of the target language in a real-life situation, with emphasis on communication of ideas rather than on correctness of language form. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Communities of Practice

Groups of people sharing an interest or profession who interact and collaborate in order to share knowledge and develop solutions for common problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community

A social group linked by common interests through residence in a specific locality, or, whether or not in physical proximity, whose members perceive themselves as sharing a common ideology, interest, or other characteristic. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Action

Grass roots mobilization of local resources to meet community needs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Based Instruction (Disabilities)

Systematic training of people with disabilities in functional skills within the natural community setting where such skills are used, in order to ease/enhance transitions to independent living, community participation, and employment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Benefits

Advantages derived by communities from their association with institutions, industries, programs, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Centers

Facilities at which social, educational, recreational, and other activities are held for the benefit of the community. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Change

Change in or of a community -- may be either planned or unplanned, initiated in the community or by outside forces, toward or away from improvement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Colleges

Public, postsecondary institutions commonly organized into 2-year programs and offering instruction adapted in content, level, and schedule to the needs of the community in which they are located -- usually offer a comprehensive curriculum with transfer, occupational, general education, and adult education components. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Control

Control of community programs, institutions, agencies, etc., by recognized groups within the community (e.g., minority controlled schools, elitist versus pluralistic control, etc.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Cooperation

Cooperation of a community as a whole (i.e., local government and constituents) in any activity or endeavor. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Coordination

Process of bringing together the diverse elements of a community (people, groups, agencies, organizations) into a working whole. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Development

Process by which communities and outside agencies plan, organize, or implement general improvements of community resources, facilities, economic conditions, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Education

Extending existing educational resources (including those of schools, colleges, and local organizations) into the community to serve all age groups and special target groups not ordinarily served by regular educational programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Influence

The influence exerted by a community. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Information Services

Those services of local libraries or other community groups that provide direct access or referral to nontraditional information (e.g., unpublished materials, government agency information on public services, broadcast information on current topics, data for use in emergencies, etc.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Involvement

Involvement of a community in activities or programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Needs

Necessary conditions for optimal function, development, or well-being of the community. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Resources

The financial, material, and/or human assets of a community. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Responsibility

Obligations, duties, or trusts given to or assumed by a community. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Role

Functions expected of or performed by a community. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Schools

Schools that are closely connected with the life of the community in which they are located, i.e., instruction and other school activities are intended to be relevant to most or all segments of the community's population. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Services

Includes educational, recreational, cultural, and social welfare services, and/or the provision of facilities for such activities, offered for the benefit of the general public by community groups or agencies, often as an adjunct to their primary functions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Study

Analysis of the work, amusements, reading, beliefs, and customs of a whole community in an effort to understand community life and problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Support

Support by the community of something (issue, program, policy, etc.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Community Surveys

Investigations of social conditions and resources, community attitudes, uses of community agencies, institutional practices, etc., as they exist at a given time in a given community. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Commuter Colleges

Institutions of higher education that primarily serve commuting students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Commuting Students

Students living off campus who travel to an institution for classes, study, and other activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Comorbidity

The co-occurrence of multiple disorders or diseases in one person with relation to how the combination of conditions may impact diagnosis, prognosis, and/or treatment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Comparable Worth

Principle of equal pay for work of comparable value, i.e., equal pay for jobs that may have different duties but that require similar levels of skill, effort, and responsibility under similar working conditions -- frequently advocated to redress sex-based pay inequities, i.e., between comparable female- and male-dominated jobs (some analyses consider race/ethnicity among job types as well). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Comparative Education

Field of study dealing with the comparison of educational theory and practice in different countries. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Comparative Testing

Testing in which two or more individuals, groups, or tests are compared. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Compensation (Remuneration)

Total payment awarded, including wage or salary, fringe benefits, and perquisites. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Compensatory Education

Education that seeks to compensate for environmental and experiential deficits in relation to such areas as schooling, housing, employment, poverty, racism, and other social and cultural factors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Competence

The individual's demonstrated capacity to perform, i.e., the possession of knowledge, skills, and personal characteristics needed to satisfy the special demands or requirements of a particular situation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Competency Based Education

Educational system that emphasizes the specification, learning, and demonstration of those competencies (knowledge, skills, behaviors) that are of central importance to a given task, activity, or career. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Competency Based Teacher Education

Educational system that stresses the explicit demonstration of specified performance as evidence of what a teacher should know and be able to do. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Competition

Rivalry between individuals or groups seeking the same object or goal. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Compliance (Legal)

Conforming to laws or legal directives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Componential Analysis

Methodological procedure in linguistics and cognitive anthropology used to explain, distinguish, or study the meaning of sounds, words, and sentences (including the concepts behind terminological choices of particular cultures) by specifying common components, features, or relationships. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Comprehensive Guidance

Model adopted by states and school systems to ensure the systematic delivery of guidance services to all students -- most often refers to grades K-12. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Comprehensive Programs

A full set of curricula including college preparatory, commercial, and vocational courses, usually implemented at the secondary level. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Comprehensive School Health Education

Sequential programs of health instruction, health services, and healthful school environments that enable students in kindergarten through grade 12 to develop the awareness, knowledge, and skills needed for healthy behaviors -- health areas covered include mental and emotional health, community and environmental health, consumer health, family life, growth and development, nutrition, personal health and fitness, safety and accident prevention, disease prevention and control, and substance use and abuse. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Compulsory Education

Education that is legally required to be available to, and attended by, the school-age population. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computation

The act or method of calculating or estimating through the use of number operations and/or other mathematical processes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computational Linguistics

ranch of linguistics concerned with the use of computers for the analysis and synthesis of language data -- for example, in machine translation, word frequency counts, and speech recognition and synthesis. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Assisted Design

Use of interactive computer systems to calculate, manipulate, display, evaluate, and modify design alternatives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Assisted Instruction

Interactive instructional technique in which a computer is used to present instructional material, monitor learning, and select additional instructional material in accordance with individual learner needs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Computer Assisted Testing

Use of computers in test administration or construction. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Attitudes

Attitudes toward or about computers and computer use. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Centers

Locations housing computers, peripherals, and software, ranging from microcomputer laboratories in single schoolrooms to large mainframe installations offering a variety of data processing assistance and consultancy. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Games

Games played on a computer by one or more players. Computer games may be played on a personal computer, game console, or handheld device. Interfaces may include a joystick, keyboard, mouse, or control pad. Game software may be distributed on physical media such as CDs and DVDs or as online downloads. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Graphics

Techniques for graphic or pictorial representation of information in a computer -- representations may be in hardcopy or on display screens. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Interfaces

Connecting links between computers, between computers and peripheral equipment, or between computers and users -- hardware interfaces include plugs, sockets, and wires that carry electrical signals, software interfaces are the languages, codes, and messages used by programs to communicate with each other, and user interfaces are keyboards, mice, joy sticks, light pens, command languages, menus, display screens, and other devices used for interactive communication between users and computers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Literacy

Awareness of the operations, capabilities, and application of computers sufficient for an individual to function in society and the workplace. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Managed Instruction

Use of a computer to maintain and analyze data on learner performance and instructional progress as an aid to teachers in selecting learning activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Mediated Communication

Interactive use of computers for electronic mail, computer conferences, electronic bulletin boards, and online journals and databases. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Networks

Interconnected computers and peripherals, linked for resource sharing. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Oriented Programs

The application of computer technology to such tasks as instruction, documentation, research, administration, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Peripherals

Any computer equipment other than the central processing unit, i.e., devices for input, output, storage, add-on memory, and other auxiliary functions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Science

Study of the theory, design, analysis, and applications of computers and computer-based systems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Security

Measures taken to protect computer systems (hardware, software, and data files) from accidental or malicious damage or destruction and from unauthorized access. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Selection

The process of evaluating and choosing computer hardware and/or systems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Simulation

Computer-based representation of real situations or systems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Software

Logical sequences of instructions used to direct the actions of a computer system, and accompanying documentation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Software Evaluation

Determining the efficacy, value, etc., of computer software with respect to stated objectives, standards, or criteria. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Software Reviews

Published critical appraisals of specific computer software. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Software Selection

The process of choosing software for acquisition. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer System Design

The process of selecting, setting up, and modifying a system of computer hardware and software -- also, the layout and specifications of a computer system. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Terminals

Input output devices, generally including a keyboard and a display unit (video or print), used to enter data into and receive data from a computer. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Use

The manner, purpose, frequency, etc., of individual's use of computers, including handheld devices that employ computing technologies. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computer Uses in Education

The use of computers for instruction, testing, student/pupil personnel services, school administrative support services, and other educational purposes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Computers

Devices that solve problems by accepting information, performing prescribed operations on it, and supplying the results obtained -- usually consist of units for input, output, storage, control, and arithmetic or logical operations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Concept Mapping

The identification, organization, and graphic depiction of relationships among concepts in a knowledge domain -- the technique employs a node-link formalism in which domain key concepts are circled, bracketed, etc., arranged hierarchically (general to specific), then interconnected by lines labeled with short explanations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Conceptual Tempo

An index of time spent in problem solving sequences used to characterize the reflective/impulsive dimension of cognitive style. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Conditioning

Experimental procedures that attempt systematically to modify or control natural behavior. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Conference Papers

Individual papers presented at conferences. Note: Corresponds to the Publication Type "Speeches/Meeting Papers" -- do not use except as the subject of a document. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Confidence Testing

Testing technique that determines examinees' knowledge in objective or multiple choice tests by requiring them to indicate the degree of confidence they have in their answer. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Confidentiality

Protection of privileged information. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Conflict of Interest

Incompatibility or opposition among needs and responsibilities, especially between private or personal interests and public or professional obligations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Confucianism

Religion based on the teachings of Confucius (China, 5th century B.C.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Congenital Impairments

Impairments present or originating at birth. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Congruence (Psychology)

In accord or agreement with others or oneself. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Consciousness Raising

The process of increasing knowledge and concerned awareness of social, political, economic, and environmental realities and issues, and/or of one's own nature, beliefs, behavior, and power -- often with the intent to effect change. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Conservation (Concept)

The principle that mass, number, and volume do not vary despite transformations in their form or embodiment (e.g., a pound of clay is a pound of clay whether in the form of a ball or a sausage) -- in developmental psychology, the recognition or understanding of this phenomena. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Conservation (Environment)

Preservation of the environment, including natural resources, from loss, waste, or harm. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Consortia

Associations of institutions (usually higher education or libraries) that share resources and/or students to strengthen programs or services and reduce costs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Construct Validity

The extent to which a test measures a hypothetical construct or trait (e.g., creativity, analytical ability, persistence, mechanical competence, achievement motivation) that is the basis for test performance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Construction (Process)

Act of putting parts together to form a physical structure or facility. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Constructivism (Learning)

Viewpoint in learning theory which holds that individuals acquire knowledge by building it from innate capabilities interacting with the environment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Consultation Programs

Formal procedures whereby consulting services are provided by specialists (e.g., health workers, extension agents, counselors) to individuals or groups (e.g., teachers, students, administrators, parents, communities). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Consumer Economics

Economic principles and forces that affect the consumer and the interpretation of economic theories in terms of consumer interest as distinguished from producer interest. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Consumer Education

Study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and relationship of consumer to the economic system. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Consumer Science

Those phases of science needed by or useful to the consumer including operation and repair of simple household equipment, effects of cleaning and other products, and preservation and care of food and clothing. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Content Analysis

Systematic, objective, and quantitative description of the manifest or latent content of print or nonprint communications. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Content Area Reading

Instruction concerned with reading assignments -- also, instructional material in such subject areas as social studies, mathematics, science, and English. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Content Area Writing

Written composition or writing instruction for specific academic or vocational subject areas. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Content Validity

The extent to which a test adequately represents the subject-matter content or behavior to be measured -- commonly used in evaluating achievement or proficiency tests. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Context Effect

The impact or consequences of an encompassing situation on the functions and performance of something -- in education, the effects of situational variables (e.g., physical setting, psychosocial condition, expectations) on perception, cognition, and experience. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Contingency Management

Systematic arrangement of reinforcing events in order to strengthen or weaken specific behavior. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Continuation Students

Students enrolled in special continuation education programs -- continuation education enables youth and adults who have previously dropped out of or otherwise rejected conventional schooling to complete their formal education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Continuing Education

Educational programs and services, usually on the postsecondary level, designed to serve adults who seek particular learning experiences on a part-time or short term basis for personal, academic, or occupational development. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Continuing Education Units

Uniform units of measurement reflecting participation in organized continuing (noncredit) education programs under responsible sponsorship -- designed to provide a national standard for recognition of adult participation in post-degree and non-degree education programs (one unit equals ten contact hours). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Continuous Progress Plan

Curriculum organized so that students can progress at their own rates through a sequence of increasingly difficult courses. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Contract Training

Training or education provided under contract, most often by educational, usually two-year, institutions to business, industry, and government. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Contracts

Formal agreements between two or more parties in which, for a benefit or to avoid a penalty, one or more of the parties agrees to do a certain thing. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Contrastive Linguistics

Study of the similarities and differences between languages or dialects or between different periods in the historical development of one language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Control Groups

Groups that match experimental groups except that they are not exposed to the experimental variables being studied -- differences arising between the groups are then attributed to these variables. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Controversial Issues (Course Content)

Matters of public concern and controversy that are taught, often through discussion, in social studies, current events, science, and other classes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Convergent Thinking

Thought processes involved in searching for the one right, best, or conventional answer to a problem. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Conversational Language Courses

Courses that develop conversational skills in a foreign language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cooperating Teachers

Experienced elementary or secondary teachers employed to supervise student teachers or teacher interns in affiliated schools. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cooperation

Act of working together toward a common goal. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cooperative Education

Work and school experiences under the direction of a teacher coordinator, arranged between school and employer to complement each other toward an occupational goal -- often more formally structured and supervised than other work experience programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cooperative Learning

Learning situation in which students work together in small groups. Evaluation may be based on the group's performance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cooperative Planning

Process by which individuals or groups determine mutual objectives and the means for attaining them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cooperative Programs

Programs conducted between or among independent institutions or organizations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cooperatives

Economic enterprises wholly owned by their users. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Coordination

Process of bringing about or organizing cooperative actions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Coordinators

Liaison agents between groups of people or organizations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Coping

Contending with difficulties without altering purposes or goals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Copyrights

Exclusive privileges to publish, sell, or otherwise control works that can be reproduced, granted by governments to authors, composers, artists, publishers, etc., for a specified number of years. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Core Curriculum

Studies, activities, or courses that meet the common needs of students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Corporate Education

Broad array of courses, curricula, and educational services offered by business and industry -- may be completely in-house or offered cooperatively with an educational institution. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Corporate Support

Aid provided by business and industry (e.g., money, equipment, materials, technical assistance). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Corporations

Businesses or other associations organized as legal entities, having rights and duties distinct from those of their individual members. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Correctional Education

Educational programs provided for adults or youth in correctional institutions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Correctional Rehabilitation

Activities designed to help prisoners and other offenders to lead useful lives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Corrective Reading

Reading instruction within a regular class for students with reading problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Correlation

Description of the degree of association or concomitant variation between two independently measured traits. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Correspondence Study

Method of instruction with teacher student interaction by mail. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cost Effectiveness

Evaluation of the monetary gains and losses associated with various decisions, outcomes, or actions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cost Indexes

Measures of the difference in cost or price (prices of consumer goods, school costs, etc.) from that which existed during a designated base period. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Costs

Amount charged, but not necessarily paid, for something. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counseling

Process of helping individuals and groups understand and cope with adjustment problems -- involves giving advice, information, or encouragement, engaging in therapeutic discussions, or administering and interpreting tests. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counseling Objectives

Aims or ends toward which the counseling process (one aspect of the total process of "guidance") is directed. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counseling Psychology

Psychology relating to counseling -- more specifically, psychology courses and learning experiences concerned with training counselors or counseling psychologists to assist persons to make adjustments and choices, especially in regard to vocational, education, and personal matters. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counseling Services

Organized activities designed to help individuals or groups understand and cope with adjustment problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counseling Techniques

Methods, procedures, and approaches used by counselors in working with clients. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counselor Attitudes

Attitudes of, not toward, counselors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counselor Characteristics

Physical and psychological characteristics of counselors, e.g., personality traits, values, experience, age, race, sex. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counselor Educators

Members of a college or university faculty who are primarily concerned with the preparation of counselors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counselor Evaluation

Process of judging counselor performance as related to established criteria. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counselor Qualifications

Abilities, aptitudes, or achievements that suit counselors for professional practice or employment, especially including the legal and educational requirements for counseling positions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counselor Training

Any formal or informal program that develops counseling skills of professionals or nonprofessionals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Counties

The principal, often geographically largest, areas into which states, territories, countries, etc., are divided for purposes of local government -- in the U.S.A., administrative subdivisions of states. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


County School Districts

School systems that encompass the public schools (sometimes with specific exceptions) within a county. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Course Content

Subject matter or activities of a course of study. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Course Organization

General plan of instruction prepared by the teacher for use with particular groups of students for a specific period of time. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Course Selection (Students)

Student choice of an instructional class or course, or of a class/course cluster. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Courses

Educational units within the curriculum dealing systematically with a particular subject or discipline for a given period of time. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Courseware

Computer software and accompanying documentation written for instructional applications. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Court Litigation

Legal action or process in a court. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Creationism

Theory or belief that the universe and various forms of life were created by a transcendent God out of nothing -- also, the theological doctrine that God creates a new human soul for each individual born. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Creative Development

Development of creative skills and aptitudes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Creative Teaching

Development and use of novel, original, or inventive teaching methods. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Creative Writing

Writing characterized by originality, imaginativeness, and expressiveness. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Creativity

The attribute of constructive originality, often manifested in the ability to discover new solutions to problems or find new modes of artistic expression. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Creativity Tests

Tests used to indicate an individual's originality, inventiveness, or imagination. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Credibility

Compatibility of a statement or situation with what is generally perceived as true or possible. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Credits

Units for expressing quantitatively the work completed by a student. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Creoles

Mixed natural languages--composed of elements of different languages in areas of intensive language contact--that develop from pidgins and have native speakers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Crime Prevention

Measures taken to forestall a delinquent or criminal act. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Criminal Law

Branch of jurisprudence that relates to crimes and their punishments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Crisis Intervention

Techniques used to avert or deal with psychiatric or medical emergencies, as potential suicide, domestic violence, and drug overdose. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Crisis Management

Implementation of processes designed to prevent or alleviate crisis situations (e.g., violence, threats of violence, natural disasters, significant failures, scandals) in an organization, system, community, or environment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Criteria

Objective things, specifications, or requirements by reference to which judgments are made or confirmed. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Criterion Referenced Tests

Tests in which the items are linked to explicitly stated objectives and where the scores are interpreted in terms of these objectives rather than a group norm. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Critical Incidents Method

Procedure used to gather examples of effective or ineffective behavior with respect to a designated activity to determine the requirements for its success. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Critical Literacy

Ability to read and write using skills in critical thinking, evaluation, and reflection, sometimes with the goal of identifying or understanding underlying social issues in a text or to further social change. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Critical Path Method

Technique used to coordinate and schedule the sequential activities of a project to complete it as efficiently and quickly as possible. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Critical Reading

Reading carefully to thoroughly comprehend and evaluate what is read. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Critical Theory

An evaluative approach to social science research, associated with Germany's neo-Marxist "Frankfurt School" (1923-69), that aims to criticize as well as analyze society -- opposing the political orthodoxy of modern communism, its goal is to promote human emancipatory forces and to expose ideas and systems that impede them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Critical Viewing

Viewing carefully to comprehend and evaluate information presented by television, video recordings, and other visual media. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Criticism

Showing fault and/or worth in anything -- frequently, the analysis, study, and evaluation of works of art or discourse. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cross Age Teaching

Utilization of older students from higher grade levels to provide increased help and attention for younger students at lower grade levels. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cross Cultural Studies

Systematic efforts to compare sociological, psychological, anthropological...aspects of two or more cultural groups, either within the same country or in different countries. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cross Cultural Training

Training in communicative, behavioral, and attitudinal skills required for successful interaction with individuals of other cultures -- often used with personnel about to undertake overseas assignments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Crowding

Excessive number of individuals or entities in relation to available space. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Crying

Sobbing or shedding tears. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cued Speech

Method of language learning for the deaf utilizing manual configurations as a supplement to lipreading. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cultural Activities

Experiences, events, ceremonies, etc., that increase individuals' knowledge or enjoyment of their own or another group's cultural, social, intellectual, or artistic heritage. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cultural Background

Collection of mores, folkways, and institutions that constitutes the social heritage of an individual or group. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cultural Capital

Variable construct referring to knowledge, experience, education, and attitudes, often acquired unconsciously, which confer social advantage. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cultural Education

Education concerned with a group's cultural, social, intellectual, or artistic heritage. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cultural Isolation

A subculture's relative lack of participation in, or communication with, the larger cultural system -- can be internally or externally imposed. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cultural Literacy

Having sufficient common knowledge, i.e., educational background, experiences, basic skills, and training, to function competently in a given society (the greater the level of comprehension of the given society's habits, attitudes, history, etc., the higher the level of cultural literacy). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cultural Maintenance

The effort to sustain a culture by asserting its way of life (the ideology, life style, arts, language, etc.) and preserving its material embodiment (landscapes, architecture, and other artifacts). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cultural Relevance

Applicability of materials, methods, or programs to one's own ethnicity, social status, gender, religion, home and community environment, and/or personal experiences. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Culturally Relevant Education

Educational practices and resources that reflect the culture, values, customs, and beliefs of students (i.e., help to connect what is to be learned with the students' own lives). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Culture

Set of patterns, of and for behavior, that regulate interaction and enable mutual communication among a plurality of people, establishing them into a particular and distinct human group -- occasionally used in the more limited sense of the intellectual and aesthetic products of culture. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Culture Fair Tests

Tests designed to minimize the effects of the differing cultures or experiences of national, ethnic, sexual, or socioeconomic groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Curriculum

Plan incorporating a structured series of intended learning outcomes and associated learning experiences -- generally organized as a related combination or series of courses. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Curriculum Development

Activities such as conceptualizing, planning, field testing, and researching that are intended to produce new curricula or improve existing ones. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Curriculum Enrichment

rocess of selectively modifying a curriculum by adding educational content or new learning opportunities (e.g., out of school visits, special learning activities for gifted or deprived students, audiovisual presentations, etc.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Curriculum Evaluation

Determining the efficacy, value, etc., of a specific curriculum in terms of the validity of objectives, relevancy and sequence of content, and achievement of specified goals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Curriculum Implementation

Activities related to putting into practice curriculum plans and programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Curriculum Research

Systematic investigation, collection, and analysis of information about a structured series of learning outcomes and associated experiences. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Curriculum Study Centers

Facilities where assistance (e.g., curriculum materials, audiovisual aids, curriculum research and development) is provided to educators in planning and preparing for instruction -- may range from regional centers to units within schools. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cutting Scores

A selected point on a score scale which divides individuals earning scores above and below it into two groups for some purpose. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Cybernetics

Comparative study of control and communication processes of organisms and machines. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


D

Daily Living Skills

Personal management and social skills that are necessary for adequate functioning on an independent basis. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dance Education

Any learning activities involving dance -- may be integral to physical education or offered as a separate program of study. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Data

Information, often numerical and especially in a form suitable for processing by a computer or for other analysis. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Data Analysis

Preparation of factual information items for dissemination or further treatment (includes compiling, verifying, ordering, classifying, and interpreting). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Data Collection

Generating or bringing together information that has been systematically observed, recorded, organized, categorized, or defined in such a way that logical processing and inferences may occur. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Data Interpretation

Explanation of the meaning, implications, or limitations of factual information. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Data Processing

Systematic handling, manipulation, and computation of information by machines. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Data Use

The use of data in assessment, research, program improvement, decision making, or other processes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Database Design

The process of planning and organizing the content and structure of a database -- also, the specifications that result from this process. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Database Management Systems

Software used to create, organize, secure, access, and update databases. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Databases

Collections of information items that are organized and stored in machine-readable records and which are accessible and manipulable by computer through designated elements in the records. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Day Schools

Schools attended by students during part of the day, as distinguished from schools where students are boarded and lodged. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Deaf Interpreting

Process of acting as interpreter to facilitate communications between deaf and hearing persons. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Deafness

Deprivation of the functional use of the sense of hearing -- usually a loss of more than 75 decibels. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Deans

Administrative officials in a college or other school who are responsible for the academic program, student life, student services, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Debt (Financial)

Money owed by one party to another. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Deception

Intentional or unintentional misrepresentation or delusion. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Decision Support Systems

Computer-based decision-making and planning systems that enable users to predict the impact of decisions before they are made. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Declining Enrollment

Diminishing numbers of students in educational institutions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Decoding (Reading)

Acquisition of meaning from written language by trial and error process of graphophonic, semantic, and syntactic analyses. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Defense Mechanisms

Intrapsychic strategies used by individuals to avoid or confront unreasonable or undesirable impulses, feelings, or ideas. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Degree Requirements

Specifications of minimum courses, course distribution, and grades required for a higher education degree in a particular field of study. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Delay of Gratification

The self-imposed delay of reinforcement or voluntary deferment of reward. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Delayed Speech

Speech skill development that is below age level standards. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Delivery Systems

Organizational and administrative aspects of the provision of services. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Delphi Technique

Method of synthesizing diverse opinions into a consensus (most frequently, among experts) -- usually carried out by a series of questionnaires, the technique is characterized by minimal influence from social pressures through anonymity, repeated rounds of controlled feedback, and weighted responses. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Demand Occupations

Occupations for which personnel are needed, at the present or in the projected future. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dementia

General condition characterized by significant loss of various cognitive functions, such as memory, accompanied by changes in personality and behavior. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Demonstration Centers

Areas of educational facilities set up to solve specified educational problems through research and experimentation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Demonstrations (Educational)

Teaching method in which explanations are given by example or experiment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dental Evaluation

Determination of an individual's dental health and of any needed treatment -- also, the appraisal of dental procedures, programs, equipment, etc., according to professional standards. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Department Heads

Faculty members responsible for the coordination or administration of an academic area of study. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Descriptive Linguistics

Approach to linguistics that is concerned with the observation and description of a language at one point in time -- describes language as it is actually used rather than prescribing how it should be used. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Desensitization

Planned exposure to anxiety producing stimuli in order to reduce illogical fears. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Design

The process of conceiving and selecting the structure, elements, arrangement, materials, steps, or procedures of some activity or thing -- also, the plan, layout, or mental scheme that results. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Design Crafts

The artistic creation or decoration of a structure or material, either by hand or by machine. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Design Requirements

Specifications that must be met for the designs of facilities or objects in order to satisfy the physical or psychological needs of users. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Desktop Publishing

The production of finished publications in one's home or office using a microcomputer, a peripheral high-resolution printer, and page-composition software that permits the integration of text, graphics, photography, and/or type sizes and styles. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developing Institutions

Smaller colleges and universities that, for reasons beyond their control, are not realizing their full potential, are struggling for survival, and are isolated from the mainstream of academic life -- specifically, institutions affected by Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Development

Progression from earlier to later stages of growth or organization -- includes gradual realization of potential, usually accompanied by advances in size, complexity, efficiency, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developmental Continuity

Transitional continuity in human learning and development, e.g., between different elements and levels of schooling. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developmental Delays

Gaps between developmental (mental or functional) age and chronological age -- serious delays may eventually be diagnosed as specific developmental disabilities, while less severe delays may catch up over time with normal development and disappear. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developmental Disabilities

Category in federal legislation referring to disabilities resulting from intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or other neurological conditions closely related to intellectual disability that originate before age 18 and are considered substantial impediments to normal functioning. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developmental Programs

Programs promoting gradual growth of persons or systems through progressive advances in size, complexity, capacity, or efficiency. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developmental Stages

Natural or common divisions of the human developmental process, characterized by types of behavior (as in the oral stage), by biological properties or manifestations (as in the embryonic stage), or by mental processes (as in Piaget's "concrete operations" stage). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developmental Studies Programs

Comprehensive programs with both cognitive and affective components designed to develop the learning and academic skills and the attitudes toward self and others needed to enter and succeed at postsecondary institutions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developmental Tasks

Tasks that arise during different stages of individual development, and whose successful completion is regarded by a society or culture as appropriate and necessary for acceptable functioning and subsequent development. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Developmentally Appropriate Practices

Student-centered educational practices based on developmental needs (usually of young children) that are both age appropriate and individually appropriate -- individuals' patterns of growth, personality, families, and culture are among the important elements of the latter dimension. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Diachronic Linguistics

Study of languages or linguistic features through the course of their historical development. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Diagnostic Teaching

Process of diagnosing student abilities, needs, and objectives and prescribing requisite learning activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Diagnostic Tests

Tests used to identify the nature and source of an individual's educational, psychological, or medical difficulties or disabilities in order to facilitate correction or remediation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dialect Studies

Studies of the different ways in which the same language is spoken in different geographic regions or among different social classes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dialects

Special varieties within a language distinguished by differences in vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar but not sufficiently different to be regarded as separate languages. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Diaries

Records, written daily or at frequent intervals, of the experiences, observations, attitudes, etc., of their authors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dictionaries

Corresponds to the Publication Type "Reference Materials - Vocabularies/Classifications". Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Didacticism

Instructive qualities in literature, especially concerning moral, ethical, or religious matters. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Differences

Distinguishing elements or factors which differentiate one entity from another. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Differentiated Staffs

Staffs utilizing various levels of professional and semiprofessional personnel. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dimensional Preference

Cue response to color, form or size. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Direct Instruction

Instructional method where the principal content to be learned is presented directly to the learner by an instructor. Contrasts with approaches such as discovery learning, where the content must be independently discovered by the learner. Direct instruction is often characterized by carefully structured lessons, clearly defined teaching activities, and constant student evaluation in order to provide feedback and corrective instruction. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Directed Reading Activity

Teacher-guided reading activity -- usually includes the following steps: readiness, concept development, silent reading, discussion, and reinforcement of new skills and concepts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Directories

Systematically arranged lists of persons or organizations, usually including locational information. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Disabilities

Physical, mental, or sensory impairments that render major life activities more difficult. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Disability Discrimination

Restriction or denial of rights, privileges, and choice because of physical, mental, or sensory impairment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Disadvantaged

Individuals or groups who have low status in a particular society for reasons of race, sex, ethnicity, economics, language, geographic location, environment, education, disabilities, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Disadvantaged Environment

An environment characterized by neglect, poverty, or social, cultural, racial, or linguistic isolation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Disadvantaged Schools

Schools whose programs, facilities, or resources do not meet the basic educational needs of their students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discipline Based Art Education

Art education that draws its content from the four foundational art disciplines of art production, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics, rather than emphasizing art production (studio experiences) alone. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Disclosure

Communication of personal, organizational, or institutional information and records. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discourse Communities

Groups in which expressions of thought, either written or spoken, share characteristics of vocabulary, communicative intent, subject matter, form of presentation, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discourse Modes

Ways of organizing and classifying spoken or written discourse, such as by purpose, style, situation, and/or intended audience, e.g., poetic/technical, narrative/expository, informative/indicative, personal/formal. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discovery Learning

Learning situation in which the principal content of what is to be learned is not given but must be independently discovered by the learner. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discovery Processes

Behaviors (e.g., inquiry, exploration, experimentation, etc.) used by persons in ascertaining things not hitherto known, or known by them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discriminant Analysis

Statistical method for combining a set of measures, or score profiles, to obtain the maximum difference or discrimination between two or more groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discrimination Learning

Learning to detect and respond to differences among stimuli. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discussion

Oral, and sometimes written, exchange of opinions -- usually to analyze, clarify, or reach conclusions about issues, questions, or problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Discussion Groups

Groups that meet, either in person or electronically, to discuss subjects of mutual interest. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dislocated Workers

Workers who have lost their jobs because of economic and technological changes in a business or industry, e.g., plant closings or relocation, increased competition, automation, or market fluctuations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dismissal (Personnel)

Termination of employment when initiated by the employer. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Disproportionate Representation

Situation or condition in which the percentage of individuals from a specific population group, such as a cultural or ethnic minority, is smaller or larger than the percentage of group members in the total population. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Disqualification

The act of making ineligible. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Distance Education

Education facilitated by the communications media (mail, e-mail, radio, television, videotape, computers, videoconferencing and others) with little or no classroom or other face-to-face contact between students and teachers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Distinctive Features (Language)

Features that distinguish linguistic units from one another -- most commonly used in phonology, where phonemes may be defined in terms of such distinctive features as voicing, point of articulation, and manner of articulation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Distributive Education

Formal preparation for occupations in the field of distribution and marketing covering such activities as selling, buying, transporting, storing, promoting, financing, marketing research, and management. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Diversity

Variation within a group of persons of such characteristics as age, race, religion, gender, language, cultural background, sexual orientation, disability, or socioeconomic class. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Diversity (Faculty)

Variation within a faculty population of such characteristics as race, religion, gender, cultural background, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic class. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Diversity (Institutional)

The multiplicity of variables that embody an institution, including its policies and programs, organization, reputation, and staff/client population characteristics. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Divorce

The legal dissolution of a marriage. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Doctoral Dissertations

Theses submitted in partial fulfillment of doctoral degree requirements. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Doctoral Programs

Formal graduate programs in higher education institutions that culminate in the award of a doctoral degree, such as a PhD or EdD. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Documentaries

Factual film, videotape, or audio recordings of some real event or historic subject. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Documentation

Techniques used to collect, process, organize, store, and retrieve documents. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Donors

Individuals or organizations who donate money, land, or material goods to a cause, fund, or institution. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Drafting

Communication of ideas through drawings, sketches, charts, graphs, and maps according to mathematical rules of projection -- also, the use of drafting instruments in lettering, sketching, geometric construction, orthographic and pictorial drawings, working drawings, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dramatics

Activities in the creation, preparation, and production of plays. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dress Codes

Regulations governing personal dress and appearance including clothing, beards, hair, and cleanliness. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Drills (Practice)

Repetition of tasks or procedures. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dropout Attitudes

Attitudes of, not toward, dropouts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dropout Research

Systematic investigations focusing on the characteristics, motives, etc., of individuals who withdraw from an activity before its completion. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dropouts

Individuals who withdraw from an activity (e.g., educational program) before its completion. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Drug Abuse

Excessive use or misuse of drugs, causing physical, emotional, mental, or sensory injury or impairment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Drug Education

Study of the varied aspects of drugs, their source, abuse, chemical composition, and physical, personal, and social effects. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Drug Rehabilitation

Process of restoring drug addicts or abusers to the best possible level of physical, mental, emotional, social, or vocational functioning. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Drug Therapy

Treatment or prevention of diseases and other disorders by the administration of drugs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Drug Use

Medicinal or nonmedicinal use of drugs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Drug Use Testing

Screening for drug use or abuse by the quantitative determination of drug metabolites in the blood, urine, tissue, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dual Enrollment

Enrollment of students in two schools at the same time. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Duplication

The process or result of repeating, copying, or reproducing an action, thing, process, or activity. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Dyslexia

Impairment in the ability to read despite adequate intelligence and proper instruction. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


E

Early Adolescents

Age group between, and overlapping with, "Preadolescents" and "Adolescents" -- approximately 11-15 years of age. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Early Childhood Education

Activities and/or experiences that are intended to effect developmental changes in children, from birth through the primary units of elementary school (grades k-3). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Early Childhood Teachers

Educators working in a variety of settings to provide activities or experiences meant to effect developmental changes in children, from birth through the primary units of elementary school (grades K-3). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Early Experience

Experiences in infancy or early childhood that influence subsequent development. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Early Intervention

Intervention with individuals at risk for, or in the early stages of mental, physical, learning, or other disorders -- usually refers to efforts targeted at young children (infancy through primary grades), sometimes including prenatal care. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Early Parenthood

Parenthood assumed before age 20. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Early Reading

Reading by children before they reach school age. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Eating Disorders

Gross disturbances in eating patterns. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ecology

Study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Economic Impact

Effect of an action, event, or other circumstance (e.g., legislation, migration, commercial development, literacy, existence of a school or college) on the economic well-being of an individual, enterprise, community, region, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Economic Opportunities

Circumstances or conditions that enable individuals or groups to improve their financial status. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Economic Research

Basic, applied, and developmental research conducted to advance knowledge in economics. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Editing

To make suitable for publication or for public presentation by selecting, emending, revising, and compiling. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Education

Process of imparting or obtaining knowledge, attitudes, skills, or socially valued qualities of character or behavior -- includes the philosophy, purposes, programs, methods, organizational patterns, etc., of the entire educational process as most broadly conceived. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Education Service Centers

Multipurpose educational facilities that provide cooperative services to school districts within a region -- typical services include research, curriculum development, instructional materials, in-service training, data processing, legal and financial advice, psychological programs, and direct services to students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Education Work Relationship

Relationship between educational programs or courses of study and status or opportunities (social, financial, etc.) in the work force. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Administration

Planning, organizing, directing, and controlling human or material resources in an educational setting, and the study of this process. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Anthropology

Application of anthropological concepts and methods to the study of educational institutions and processes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Assessment

Determining and interpreting the attainment of educational objectives (nationwide, statewide, or locally) for use in educational planning, development, policy formation, and resource allocation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Attainment

ears of successfully completed schooling or the equivalent according to some accreditation standard. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Attitudes

Attitudes toward or about education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Benefits

Individual benefits obtained from acquisition of education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Educational Change

Alterations in the scope of the total educational endeavor -- includes modification of curriculum, teaching methods, enrollment patterns, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Cooperation

Cooperation of educators or educational organizations, agencies, or institutions among themselves or with outside persons, organizations, agencies, or institutions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Counseling

Assisting individuals to select a program of studies suited to their abilities, interests, future plans, and general circumstances. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Demand

Consumer demand for education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Development

Growth, differentiation, or evolution of educational systems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Diagnosis

Identification of the nature and cause of learning disabilities, problems, or other conditions that may impede or promote school performance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Environment

Conditions, forces, or factors within or exogenous to an educational setting capable of influencing the setting or those within it. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Equipment

Furnishings, machines, or other manufactured accessories that are used in educational settings. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Equity (Finance)

Equal distribution of financial inputs and costs of education, including revenues, expenditures, resources, services, tax burdens, and tax effort, based on student needs and taxpayers' ability to pay. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Facilities Design

Conceiving and selecting the structure, elements, arrangement, materials, etc., for a school building or facility -- also, the plan or layout that results. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Facilities Improvement

Improvement of the physical structure of a school building or facility. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Facilities Planning

Planning the facilities and grounds of educational institutions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Finance

Any aspect of raising and spending revenue for educational purposes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Games

Individual or group games that have cognitive, social, behavioral, and/or emotional, etc., dimensions which are related to educational objectives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Gerontology

Study and practice of educational endeavors for the aged and aging, and preparation of persons to work with these groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Improvement

Enhancing the value or quality of education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Indicators

Measures of the outcomes of educational institutions, programs, and practices, where resulting statistics are intended to inform educational policy. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Educational Innovation

Introduction of new ideas or practices into educational programs, systems, or structures. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Malpractice

Wrongful or negligent acts on the part of teachers or schools that result (or may result) in student detriments, especially including the failure of students to learn. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Media

Equipment and materials used for communication in instruction. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Mobility

Changes in an individual's or group's level of formal education, often resulting in improved social and economic status. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Needs

Necessary knowledge, skills, or attitudes that may be obtained through learning experiences -- also, the needs of educational systems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Objectives

Objectives relating to the outcomes or organization of the educational process -- includes goals proposed or established by educational authorities at all levels. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Opportunities

Circumstances or conditions that enable individuals or groups to improve their educational status. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Parks

Complex of schools, usually ranging from kindergarten through high school or the two-year college, that draws students from a metropolitan area and is intended to minimize the effects of segregation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Planning

Process of determining the objectives of education, educational institutions, or educational programs and the means (activities, procedures, resources, etc.) for attaining them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Practices

Customary operations in education, from the educational system as a whole to the individual classroom or teacher. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Principles

Values or assumptions that guide decisions concerning educational methods or objectives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Quality

Degrees of excellence in meeting educational objectives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Research

Basic, applied, and developmental research conducted to advance knowledge in the field of education or bearing on educational problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Resources

The equipment, facilities, materials, and personnel available for education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Responsibility

Obligations or duties to meet educational needs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Status Comparison

Comparison of the level of education achieved by individuals or groups and their socioeconomic status. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Strategies

Overall plans for implementing instructional goals, methods, or techniques. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Educational Supply

Education provided to meet consumer demand. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Technology

Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and/or the management of these processes -- occasionally used in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Television

Transmission of educational or informational programs or material by television. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Testing

Use of tests to assess the effect of educational programs and activities on students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Therapy

Educational practices that contribute to the treatment of students' organic or functional disorders (e.g., remedial reading instruction that improves self-esteem). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educational Vouchers

Allocations of public funds to parents to pay the costs of their children's education in the public or private school of their choice. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Educationally Disadvantaged

Individuals or groups whose schooling is judged to be qualitatively or quantitatively inferior as compared with what is considered necessary for achievement in a particular society. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Effect Size

Statistical calculation of the magnitude of a measurable effect, e.g., the mean difference on a variable between experimental and control groups divided by the standard deviation on that variable of the pooled groups or of the control group alone. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Effective Schools Research

Educational research focused on identifying unusually effective schools, studying the underlying attributes of their programs and personnel, and designing techniques to operationalize these attributes in less effective schools. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Efficiency

Capacity to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, or materials. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Elder Abuse

Physical, psychological, financial, and/or legal abuse of older persons by their relatives or caretakers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Elective Courses

Courses from which students may select on the basis of personal preference. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Electromechanical Technology

Technology of mechanical devices, systems, or processes that are electrostatically or electromagnetically actuated or controlled. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Electronic Classrooms

Classrooms equipped with electromechanical aids, such as those used in language instruction. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Electronic Journals

Periodicals, usually topical and moderated, that are published and disseminated (sometimes on an irregular schedule) in the form of electronic text or hypertext on computer networks (such as the Internet) or other computerized media (e.g., CD-ROM). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Electronic Learning

Using electronic devices, applications, or processes to acquire or transfer knowledge, attitudes, or skills through study, instruction, or experience. Content delivery modes include, but are not limited to, Internet, local and wide area networks, CD-ROM, audiotape and videotape, satellite broadcasts, stand-alone computers, and interactive TV. Although frequently associated with digital technologies, electronic learning may also utilize other electronic technologies. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Electronic Libraries

Services and collections of information made accessible through computer networks -- includes services such as document delivery, end-user searching and training, network access, and online catalog enhancements, and access to collections of bibliographic and full-text databases, electronic journals, and digital images. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Electronic Mail

The processing and delivery of printed messages (text or graphics) via telecommunications terminals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Electronic Publishing

Use of computers, instead of traditional print media, to produce and distribute information. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Elementary Education

Education provided in kindergarten or grade 1 through grade 6, 7, or 8. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Elementary School Mathematics

Mathematics curriculum or instruction provided in kindergarten or grade 1 through grade 6, 7, or 8. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Elementary Secondary Education

Formal education provided in kindergarten or grade 1 through grade 12. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Eligibility

Qualifying for certain benefits or services (e.g., student eligibility for financial aid, institutional eligibility for accreditation, family eligibility for welfare assistance, employee eligibility for retirement). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Emergency Medical Technicians

Personnel trained to respond to medical emergencies, evaluate the nature of the emergency, provide aid or treatment according to a physician's orders, and transport victim(s) to medical facilities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Emergency Shelters

Facilities providing temporary cover from weather or danger. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Emergent Literacy

The early stages of learning to read and write -- an increasing awareness of the print world, usually associated with young learners observing and experimenting with reading and writing processes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Emerging Occupations

Occupations that are new or that consist of new combinations of existing skills and knowledge, and for which considerable demand exists or is projected. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Emotional Disturbances

Persistent, serious emotional disorders and resulting behavior problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Emotional Intelligence

The ability of an individual to perceive accurately, appraise, express, and monitor the feelings and emotions of self and others, and the ability to use this information to guide personal thinking and action. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Emotional Problems

Transient emotional difficulties, usually the result of a specific event or situation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Employed Parents

Parents engaged in remunerative work, usually away from the family household. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Employee Absenteeism

Absences of employees during regularly scheduled work hours. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Employee Assistance Programs

Programs sponsored by employers to help employees remedy personal problems affecting job performance (e.g., alcohol rehabilitation, mental health assistance, financial counseling). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Employee Attitudes

Attitudes of, not toward, employees. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Employer Attitudes

Attitudes of, not toward, employers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Employment

State or condition of engaging in remunerative work. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Employment Experience

Experience gained through participation in remunerative work. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences



Employment Level

Employment rank, position, or status achieved by an individual or group. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Employment Opportunities

Available remunerative work, as well as the outlook or trend in particular occupations or industries at a given time. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Empowerment

Promotion or attainment of autonomy and freedom of choice for individuals or groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Endowment Funds

Capital sums set aside as sources of income -- the principal of each sum is usually left intact and invested, while the income may be expended. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Energy Conservation

Preventing loss or waste of energy. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Energy Education

Learning/teaching activities, often interdisciplinary in nature, that focus on such topics as energy resources, conversions, conservation, forms, uses, and issues -- includes both general and technical educational programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Energy Management

Planning, operating, and maintaining facilities and equipment for maximum energy efficiency -- includes conserving energy and procuring more economical fuels. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


English (Second Language)

English as a foreign or non-native language (i.e., English for non-English speakers). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


English for Academic Purposes

English for non-English speakers who require specialized skills in the language in order to pursue studies at the college or college-preparatory level. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


English for Science and Technology

Specialized English for non-English speakers who are studying or working in scientific and technological fields. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


English for Special Purposes

English for non-English speakers who need a certain specialized knowledge of the language in their studies, profession, or trade. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


English Language Learners

Students whose first language is not English and who are in the process of learning English. Emphasis is on development of English skills, not on the limited proficiency. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


English Only Movement

Efforts to make English the single official language of a government or other group (commonly, of the nation and states of the U.S.A.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


English Teacher Education

Teacher education in the field of English language arts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

English Teachers

Teachers of English-language arts and letters. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Enrichment Activities

Supplementary or compensatory activities and programs. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Enrollment

The total number of individuals registered as participants in a program or activity. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Enrollment Influences

Factors affecting enrollment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Enrollment Management

A set of systematic, interrelated activities for controlling enrollment patterns -- involves marketing, recruitment, admissions, pricing, and financial aid. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Entrepreneurship

Initiation, organization, promotion, and/or management of a business or enterprise with assumption of the risk of loss or failure. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences



Environment

Surrounding conditions, forces, or factors potentially capable of influencing, modifying, or interacting with an organism, material, or other entity. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Environmental Influences

Influences of the physical environment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Environmental Interpretation

Presentation of the ecological or scientific significance of a park or other natural site -- may take place in museums or other off-site locations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Environmental Research

Study of the physical environment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Environmental Standards

Laws, rules, or regulations relating to the quality of the physical environment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Epidemiology

Science of the incidence, distribution, control, and contributing factors of epidemic illness or disease. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Epistemology

The study of how knowledge is acquired. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Equal Education

System of education extending comparable opportunities to all individuals regardless of race, color, creed, age, sex, socioeconomic class, or ability. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Equalization Aid

State and/or federal monies that are given in inverse proportion to local resources. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Equated Scores

Scores from different forms of the same test, or from different tests measuring the same trait, that are converted to a common score scale so that they can be treated as equivalent and directly compared. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Equations (Mathematics)

Statements of equality among mathematical entities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Equipment

Any instrument, machine, apparatus, or set of articles used in an operation or activity without losing its original shape or appearance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Equipment Evaluation

Judging apparatus, furnishings, instruments, machinery, tools, or other devices in terms of established standards. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Equivalency Tests

Tests to measure the extent to which previous schooling, knowledge, or experience satisfies course or job requirements. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Error Analysis (Language)

In language teaching and testing, a technique of measuring progress and of devising teaching methods by recording and classifying the mistakes made by students -- in linguistics, the observation of errors in the speech process as a means of understanding the phonological and semantic components of language, interactional processes, and speakers' discourse strategies. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Error Correction

The correction of mistakes made by humans or machines -- in education, the rectification or remediation of student errors (in learning or performance), usually by classroom teachers, but also by computers, other "instructors" (peers, parents, supervisors, etc.), or oneself. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Error of Measurement

Difference between observed and true scores due to random errors introduced by the measuring instrument or administering person, i.e., that portion of a score variance that can not be accounted for systematically. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Error Patterns

Systematically recurring errors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Essay Tests

Tests in which respondents are asked to compose written statements, discussions, summaries, or descriptions that are to be used as measures of knowledge, understanding, or writing proficiency. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Essays

Short analytic, interpretative, or critical literary compositions, usually in prose. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ethical Instruction

Instruction having to do with morality and good conduct. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ethnic Diversity

Variation of ethnic backgrounds within a population. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ethnic Groups

Subgroups within a larger cultural or social order that are distinguished from the majority and each other by their national, religious, linguistic, cultural, and sometimes racial background. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ethnicity

Identification with a specific kind of ethnic character, quality, or peculiarity -- awareness of the ethnic character of oneself or others. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ethnocentrism

Habitual disposition to judge foreign peoples or groups by the standards and practices of one's own culture or ethnic group. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ethnography

Descriptive study (i.e., observation and reporting) of human culture and societies. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ethnology

Historical, analytic, or comparative study of human culture and societies. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ethology

Study of the behavior of humans and other animals under natural conditions from both evolutionary/genetic and ecological/experiential perspectives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Etiology

Study of causes, origins, or reasons. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evaluation

Appraising or judging persons, organizations, or things in relation to stated objectives, standards, or criteria. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evaluation Criteria

Specifications or standards that may be used to judge or appraise individuals, organizations, or things. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evaluation Methods

Objective or subjective procedures used to obtain and organize information for appraisal in relation to stated objectives, standards, or criteria. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evaluation Needs

Questions or problems that require evaluation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evaluation Problems

Difficulties associated with the methodology, interpretation, or use of appraisals of persons, organizations, or things. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evaluation Research

Systematic investigation into the nature and process of evaluation, including methods, practices, and utilization of results. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evaluation Utilization

The use of evaluative information in communication, learning, motivation, accountability, program improvement, decision making, or other processes. The use of evaluative information in communication, learning, motivation, accountability, program improvement, decision making, or other processes


Evaluative Thinking

Process of determining or judging the appropriateness, efficacy, or value of something with respect to specified objectives or standards. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evaluators

Individuals who collect information according to a design and use such information as a basis for judging either the absolute or relative value of programs, products, or personnel. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Evening Programs

Programs, usually educational, offered by institutions, businesses, or communities during the evening. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evidence

Information, data, materials, or documentation that supports inferences, conclusions, or judgments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Evidence Based Practice

Educational, therapeutic, or other methods integrating rigorous research and clinical expertise that lead to improvements in student performance, patient care, or other services. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Examiners

Individuals who administer tests. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Excellence in Education

Educational reform movement in the United States directed at stemming declining academic performance and renewing a commitment to high-quality, effective schooling for all -- begun in 1983 with the issuance of "A Nation at Risk," the final report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education, which focused attention and prompted widespread actions toward educational improvement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Executive Function

Cognitive processes involved in complex planning, goal setting, and organizational thinking and behavior. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Exercise

Bodily exertion to develop and maintain physical strength, skills, or fitness. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Exercise Physiology

Study of the physiological effects of bodily exertion. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Exhibits

Thematic displays or shows for the public, as well as the collection of objects that is presented. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Exit Examinations

Tests in various subject areas that must be passed in order to receive a diploma, certification, or degree. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Expectation

Anticipation of future events, conditions, or trends, and the effects of that anticipation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Expenditure per Student

Average amount of expenses incurred per student by an institution for a designated service for a given period of time. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Expenditures

Actual payments, or commitments to make future payments, for something received. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experience

The process of observing, encountering, or undergoing a set of circumstances or events from which knowledge, understanding, skills, or attitudes are derived -- also, the cumulative result of this process. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experienced Teachers

Generally refers to certified teachers who have at least two to five years of teaching experience. However, school districts, state agencies, etc. may employ additional qualifications or specify different employment periods to distinguish experienced and novice teachers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experiential Learning

Learning by doing -- includes knowledge and skills acquired outside of book/lecture learning situations through work, play, and other life experiences. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experimental Colleges

Higher education institutions characterized by innovative curricula, learning experiences, teaching methods, etc. -- also refers to institutions or programs set up by dissident students and faculty, especially in the U.S. during the 1960s. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experimental Curriculum

Curriculum marked by new or innovative ideas, methods, or organization of subject matter -- often used in comparison with a standard curriculum to assess the relative effectiveness of each. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experimental Groups

Subjects who are exposed to an experimental treatment or condition, and whose subsequent performance may be attributed to that treatment or condition. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experimental Schools

Schools in which new teaching methods, new organizations of subject matter, personnel practices, and advanced educational theories and hypotheses are tested. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experimental Teaching

Teaching that uses new or innovative ideas, methods, or devices. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Experimenter Characteristics

Distinguishing traits or qualities of an experimenter which may influence experimental results. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Expertise

A high level of knowledge, skill, proficiency, capability, experience, etc. May be developed through a combination of formal training, independent study, practice, experimentation, etc. Generally associated with specialized knowledge in a particular area and knowledge or ability that exceeds that of novices or less experienced practitioners. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Expository Writing

Form of written prose that deals with definitions, processes, generalizations, and the clarification of ideas and principles, with the intent of presenting meanings in readily communicable and unemotive language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Expressive Language

The cognitive processing involved in the transmission of oral, symbolic, or written language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Expulsion

Forced withdrawal from school. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Extended School Day

Plan that extends the time a school is open during the day, either before or after normal school hours -- may be for academic, recreational, day care, or other purposes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Extended School Year

Plan that mandates an increase in the number of days students must attend school. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Extension Education

Instructional activities offered beyond the confines of regular classes in school or on campus in order to serve a wider clientele -- may include evening classes, short courses, exhibits, telecourses, correspondence courses, seminars, and institutes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


External Degree Programs

Higher education programs offering validated degrees to students who have studied outside the institution -- e.g., programs offered by Nova University or University Without Walls. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Educatio