Pre-ETS Glossary


This is the primary glossary for the site. It contains more than 1100 terms related to learning, secondary education, post-secondary education, employment, disability, and various aspects of pre-employment transition.

Browse the glossary using this index

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B

Baby Boomers

Those born at a time when the population's birth rate is sharply increasing -- used most frequently for the post World War II generation, especially those born between 1946 and 1965. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bachelors Degrees

Academic degrees awarded by a college or university in recognition of the successful completion of undergraduate studies. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Back to Basics

Educational movement stressing basic skills, achievement, and accountability -- begun in the early 1970s as a protest against school permissiveness and declining student performance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Background

Sum of the regular and persistent influences (experiences, conditions, circumstances, events, etc.) contributing to the present development or characteristics of an individual, group, or organization. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Barriers

Tangible or intangible obstructions that block, hinder, delay, deter, or interfere with action, movement, progress, or development. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Basal Reading

Instruction that develops reading skills through the use of a series of reading materials which are designed in sequential steps for successive levels of achievement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Basic Business Education

Instruction or study in personal business affairs -- areas of concentration include legal knowledge, recordkeeping, buying, and money management. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Basic Skills

Fundamental skills that are the basis of later learning and achievement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Basic Vocabulary

Fundamental vocabulary considered essential to effective comprehension and expression (common to all fields and subjects). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Basic Writing

Developmental written composition or remedial writing instruction concerned with fundamental writing skills, including grammar, punctuation, organization, spelling, vocabulary, theme formulation, and revision -- also, basic writing for second-language students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bayesian Statistics

Procedures that combine data from new observations with prior observations or estimates to derive new and more precise estimates. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beginning Principals

Certified administrators entering their initial career position as executive or administrative officer of a school. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beginning Reading

Initial activities, processes, or behaviors involved in learning to read. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Beginning Teacher Induction

Structured processes or programs designed to facilitate the initial inservice teaching experience, usually involving mentoring or peer support. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beginning Teachers

Certified teachers entering their first teaching position. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beginning Writing

Initial activities, processes, or behaviors involved in learning to write -- usually applies to young children. Note: Do not confuse with "Basic Writing," which consists of instruction in fundamental skills, or "Freshman Composition," which is the instruction of first-year college students. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior

The aggregate of observable responses of an organism to internal and external stimuli. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Change

Complete or partial alteration in the observable activities or responses of an organism. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Disorders

Chronic or severe disorders of conduct, i.e., generally aberrant and unacceptable behaviors with or without serious underlying psychopathology. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Modification

Alteration of behavior by the use of conditioning techniques. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Patterns

Complex acts made up of distinguishable lesser acts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Problems

Transient or mild problems in conduct. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavior Rating Scales

Devices used to observe and record the occurrence of specific behaviors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavioral Objectives

Aims of instruction or any learning activity stated as actual performance criteria or as observable descriptions of measurable behavior. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behavioral Science Research

Basic, applied, and developmental research conducted to advance knowledge in the behavioral sciences. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Behaviorism

School of psychological thought, founded by J.B. Watson in 1913, concerned with the observable, tangible, objective facts of behavior, rather than with subjective phenomena such as thoughts, emotions, or impulses -- contemporary behaviorism also emphasizes the study of mental states such as feelings and fantasies to the extent that they can be directly observed and measured. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Beliefs

Ideas, doctrines, tenets, etc. that are accepted as true on grounds which are not immediately susceptible to rigorous proof. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Benchmarking

Systematically measuring and comparing the operations and outcomes of organizations, systems, processes, etc., against agreed upon "best-in-class" frames of reference. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Best Practices

Techniques or methodologies which are recognized as producing the best performance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bias

An inclination, or a lack of balance. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bibliographies

Descriptive lists of books or other printed materials, which are written by one author, during one period, on one subject, produced by one printer and/or publisher, or located in one place. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bibliometrics

The application of mathematical and statistical methods in the study of bodies of writings to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bibliotherapy

Use of selected reading and related materials for therapeutic purposes in physical medicine, mental health, and education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Education

Encouragement of bilingualism through the teaching of regular school courses in both the national language and a second language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Education Programs

Activities that offer content area instruction in two languages -- appreciation of participants' cultural heritage is emphasized, and native speakers of both languages may be present -- attention is given to developing the academic skills of minority students while they learn the language of the majority culture. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Instructional Materials

Print and/or nonprint educational materials developed specifically for use with students who need proficiency in two languages. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Students

Students who can communicate effectively in more than one language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Teacher Aides

Teacher aides who can communicate effectively in more than one language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingual Teachers

Teachers who can communicate effectively in more than one language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bilingualism

The ability to communicate in two languages. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biodiversity

The variety of living organisms, encompassing genetic differences within species to entire ecosystems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biofeedback

Auditory, visual, or other sensory feedback on physiological processes or states (e.g., heart rate, muscle tension, brain waves, skin temperature) in order to facilitate control of these normally involuntary functions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biographical Inventories

Sets of questions used to gather information on an individual's background. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biographies

Written histories of people's lives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biomechanics

Science of the action of forces, internal and external, on living things. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biomedicine

Branch of science concerned with the capacity of human beings to survive and function in specific environments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biophysics

Application of physical methods and principles to biological problems. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Biotechnology

The use of biological organisms, systems, or processes to make or modify products. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Birth Rate

Ratio between the number of births and the number of individuals in a specified population. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Black Colleges

Colleges whose enrollments are, or have traditionally been, predominantly black. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Black Studies

Curriculum or subject area encompassing the history and contemporary social, political, and cultural situation of blacks. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Blacks

Persons of black African descent. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Blended Learning

Variable construct describing approaches to teaching and learning that integrate, in a significant and meaningful way, more than one technique for delivering instruction. Widely associated with combinations of face-to-face and e-learning teaching methods, blended learning may also refer to other mixtures (e.g., individual and group instruction; self-paced instruction and lecture method).


Blindness

Having no sight or such limited vision that hearing and touch are the chief means of perception and learning -- legal blindness is usually defined as having central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with correction or having a visual field no greater than 20 degrees. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Block Grants

Financial assistance for broad ranges of activities and services, of which specific dispensations of allocated funds are made at the discretion of the grantee within the bounds of a statutory formula. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Block Scheduling

An instructional arrangement whereby part or all of the daily class schedule is organized into blocks of time longer than an hour, to facilitate flexibility and diversity in instructional activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Blue Collar Occupations

Occupations that require manual labor -- includes skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled occupations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Boarding Schools

Educational institutions at the elementary-secondary level in which students are in residence while enrolled in an instructional program. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Body Composition

The amounts of fat and nonfat tissue in the body, usually expressed as a ratio. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Books

Corresponds to the Publication. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Brain Drain

Loss of highly skilled or educated persons from one country, region, institution, or job sector to another (for better pay, improved living conditions, expanded opportunities, etc.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Brain Hemisphere Functions

Specialized roles of the right and left halves of the brain. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Brainstorming

Activity or technique to encourage the creative generation of ideas -- usually a group process, in which group members contribute suggestions in a spontaneous, noncritical manner. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Buddhism

Religion based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (India, 5th century B.C.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Budgeting

The process of determining estimates of proposed expenditures for a given period or purpose and the proposed means of financing them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Budgets

Estimates of proposed expenditures for a given period or purpose and the proposed means of financing them. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Building Conversion

Modifying a building to make it suitable for a new use or purpose. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Building Design

Conceiving and selecting the structure, elements, arrangement, materials, etc., for a building -- also, the plan or layout that results. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Bullying

Cruelty and intimidation by teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting, stealing, excluding, ignoring, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Burnout

Negative feelings and/or behaviors resulting from unsuccessful attempts to cope with stress conditions -- characterized by physical and emotional exhaustion, chronic negative attitudes, very low productivity, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business

Activities concerned with the production or exchange of goods or the rendering of financial or other services to the public for profit. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Business Administration

The organization and management of commercial enterprises. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business Administration Education

Professional study of the organization and management of commercial enterprises, usually at the baccalaureate level and above. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business Communication

Interchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in commercial or mercantile environments. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business Education

Formal preparation for occupations in business below the baccalaureate degree. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Business Schools

An institution of higher learning where subjects related to business or business services are taught. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Busing

Transporting students for the purpose of school desegregation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences



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