Pre-ETS Glossary


This is the primary glossary for the site. It contains more than 1100 terms related to learning, secondary education, post-secondary education, employment, disability, and various aspects of pre-employment transition.

Browse the glossary using this index

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G

Game Based Learning

Learning and teaching situations in which students gain and apply knowledge through game play. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Game Theory

Method for analyzing situations of strategic interaction between competing agents or parties, where an agent's payoff from competition is affected not only by its own actions but also by the actions of its competitors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gardening

The laying out and care of a plot of ground devoted partially or wholly to the growing of plants such as flowers, herbs, or vegetables. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gateway Systems

Intermediary computer systems that simplify access to and use of other computer systems, networks, and bulletin boards, sometimes including unified access and switching across multiple databank hosts. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gender Bias

Prejudicial attitudes toward people because of their sex, including the conscious or unconscious expression of these attitudes in writing, speaking, etc. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gender Discrimination

Restriction or denial of rights, privileges, and choice because of one's sex. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gender Issues

Points of discussion or controversy pertaining to aspects of the male or female sex, especially in relation to societal or cultural conceptions of masculine and feminine roles or traits. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Genealogy

History or account of lineal descent from an ancestor or ancestors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


General Education

Integrated learning experiences structured across subject disciplines to provide the set of skills and knowledge needed to function in society. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Generalizability Theory

Statistical model for interpreting variance components associated with a specified universe of conditions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Generalization

Process of drawing inferences or forming general conclusions from a number of specific instances -- also, the tendency to make the same response to new but similar stimuli. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Generational Differences

Use for documents which contrast generations defined as groups held together by their shared experiences, ideas, problems, or attitudes (e.g. Beat Generation, Lost Generation). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Generative Grammar

A grammar, or system of rules, designed to generate (i.e., produce or predict) all of and only the well-formed (i.e., "grammatical") sentences of a language. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Genetic Disorders

Disorders or diseases, which may or may not be inherited, caused wholly or in part by a defect in an individual's genes. These defects may be caused by mutation or alteration of a gene, which occurs randomly or because of an environmental trigger; by a variation or different form of a gene; or by an abnormal chromosome number or structure. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Genetics

Biological science which deals with the phenomena of heredity and the variation between parents and offspring. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Geographic Concepts

Abstract ideas related to geography that are usually emphasized in instruction (i.e., mobility, population distribution, demographic variation, spatial distribution, microclimate, energy flow, etc.). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Geographic Information Systems

Computer-based systems used for the acquisition, storage, retrieval, manipulation, analysis, and display of geographic data. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Geographic Isolation

A condition characterized by remoteness, relative inaccessibility, and sparsity or small size of population. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Geriatrics

Branch of medicine dealing with the physiology and pathology of old age. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gerontology

Scientific study of aging and problems of the aged. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Ghettos

Residential areas, usually within cities, in which members of a particular racial or cultural group live, primarily because of social, economic, or legal factors. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gifted Disabled

Persons of superior ability or potential who also have physical, sensory, emotional, or behavioral disabilities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gifted Disadvantaged

Persons of superior ability or potential who are also economically, educationally, or socially disadvantaged. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gifted Education

Educational programs and services for gifted individuals. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Global Approach

Approach to social, cultural, scientific, and humanistic questions involving an orientation to the world as a single interacting system. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Global Education

Learning/teaching activities across all grade levels that focus on the inter-relatedness of peoples, cultures, and nations -- subfields include world geography, world history, and international relations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Glossaries

Dictionaries of special or technical terms with limited subject scope. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Goal Orientation

Psychological disposition toward achieving one's objectives. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Goodness of Fit

Statistical estimate of the extent to which a score distribution, or other numerical series of observations, differs significantly from the numerical values predicted by a mathematical model (i.e., an estimation of how well the theory fits the data). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Governance

The policy-making, objective-setting, and exercise of authority in an organization, institution, or agency -- includes administrative or management functions to the extent that they relate to the execution of policy and authority. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Governing Boards

Group charged with the responsibility for some degree of control over managing the affairs of public or private institutions. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Government Libraries

Special libraries maintained out of government funds. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Government Publications

Publications that are funded, prepared, and/or distributed by national, state, or local government units. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Government School Relationship

Any interaction of an educational institution or school district with a local, provincial, or central government. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grade Equivalent Scores

Ability or achievement scores that have been converted to the grade level norm -- usually expressed in years and tenths, e.g., 6.4 means sixth grade, fourth month. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grade Inflation

A continuous rise in the proportion of higher scholastic grades awarded, often associated with a perceived laxity in academic standards. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grade Point Average

A measure of scholastic achievement in several subjects or courses obtained by dividing the sum of the total grade points by the total number of hours of course work. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grade Prediction

Estimation of future achievement, expressed in scholastic grades or marks, on the basis of past and current information. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grade Repetition

Repeating a grade level in school because of deficient achievement. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grading

Process of rating an individual's or group's performance, achievement, or less frequently, behavior, using specifically established scales of values. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Graduate School Faculty

Academic staff members engaged in instruction, research, administration, or related educational activities in a graduate school of a college or university. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Graduate Surveys

Follow-up studies of students who have graduated. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Graduates

Individuals who have satisfactorily completed the requirements of an educational program and have been awarded a certificate, diploma, or degree. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Graduation

The process of receiving a diploma or degree for completing a phase of formal education. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Graduation Rate

Ratio of the number of students who complete a particular course of study, earning a certificate, diploma, or degree, to the number of students initially enrolled in it. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Graduation Requirements

Educational and other specifications or minimum competencies of a program, school, college, or university that a student must satisfactorily complete to graduate (often stated in terms of semester hours, credits, residence requirements, or minimum grades). Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grammar Translation Method

Traditional foreign language teaching method that emphasizes grammatical rules and their application to translation -- emphasis is on reading and writing rather than oral communication. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

Grandparents who have primary parenting responsibility for their grandchildren. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grants

Funds given by a foundation, government, institution, or other organization, usually for a specific purpose. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grantsmanship

Skills and procedures for applying for external funding. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences

Graphing Calculators

Calculators capable of producing animated graphing sequences based on mathematical formulas. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Greek Civilization

Studies of modern or ancient Greece. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grief

Emotional state of intense sadness associated with external loss or deprivation. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grounded Theory

A research method in which emergent theory is grounded in and developed inductively from systematically collected data. Also known as the constant comparative method, it is generally associated with qualitative social science research. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Behavior

Behavior of a group as a whole, as well as the behavior of an individual as influenced by his or her membership in a group. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Counseling

Using the dynamics of a group in a counselor-structured situation to increase counselees' self-understanding and adjustment. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Discussion

Discussion in groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Dynamics

Formation and functioning of human groups -- includes both the interaction within and among groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Experience

Experience of a group as a whole, as well as the experience of an individual resulting from his or her membership in a group. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Guidance

Guidance carried on in groups to assist members to develop realistic and satisfying goals, plans, and activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Homes

Nonconfining residential facilities providing professional supervision in a group living arrangement for either adults or juveniles, usually those who are unable to function independently -- intended to reproduce as closely as possible the circumstances of family life, and at minimum providing access to community activities and resources. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Testing

Process of administering tests to groups. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Group Unity

Cohesiveness of groups of people, families, tribes and nations. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Grouping (Instructional Purposes)

Organization or classification of students according to specified criteria for instructional purposes. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Growth Models

Models of student gains in academic achievement over time used to determine whether expected achievement goals are being met. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Guessing (Tests)

Responding to test items without certainty of the correct answers. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Guidance

Process of assisting individuals and groups to develop realistic and satisfying goals, plans, and activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Guidance Objectives

Aims or ends toward which the guidance process is directed. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Guidance Programs

Ongoing activities designed to assist individuals and groups develop realistic and satisfying goals, plans, and activities. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gun Control

The regulation of the manufacture, transport, sale, ownership, and use of firearms. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences


Gynecology

Branch of medicine dealing with the diseases, hygiene, and reproduction function of females. Definition provided by ERIC: Institution of Education Sciences



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